Environmental & Occupational Influences on Health Flashcards Preview

FoPC 1st Year > Environmental & Occupational Influences on Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Environmental & Occupational Influences on Health Deck (37)
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1

What is a hazard?

Something with potential to cause harm

2

What is a risk?

The likelihood of harm occuring

3

What is a risk factor?

Increase the risk of harm

4

What is a protective factor?

Decrease the risk of harm

5

What is susceptibility?

Influences the likelihood that something will cause harm

6

What are different kinds of hazards?

Physical

Chemical

Mechanical

Biological

Psychological

7

What are different routes of exposure?

Skin

Blood/sexual

Inhalation

Ingestion

8

What are some factors that influence the degree of risk?

How much a person is exposed

How the person is exposed

Conditions of exposure

9

What does risk combine?

The probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved

10

What can be said about risk to different people?

People perceive risk differently

11

What are the 3 principles that govern how people perceive risk differently?

Feeling in control (voluntary vs involuntary)

Size of the possible harm

Familiarity with the risk

12

Are voluntary or involuntary risk perceived as having greater risk?

Involuntary risk

13

What is involuntary risk?

Situations where we believe we have little control

14

What is voluntary risk?

Situations where we believe we have some control

15

How does familiarity of risk change the risk?

Risk that are less familiar with are perceived as being greater than familiar ones

16

What are individual variables in risk perception?

Previous experience

Attitudes towards risk

Values

Beliefs

Socio-economic factors

Personality

Demographic factors

17

What are the 2 broad categories of risk from the environment?

Direct pathological effect

Indirect

18

What are examples of direct environmental risks to health?

Physical (radiation, noise and vibration)

Chemical (pesticides, volotile organic compounds)

Biological (infectious agents, allergic substances)

19

What are examples of indirect environmental risks to health?

Housing (overcrowing)

Transport (encouraging walking or not)

Town planning (access to amenities)

Income/wealth distribution

20

What are different categories of hazourdous exposure?

Diet

Inhalation

Dermal

21

What are examples of hazardous exposure from diet?

Fat

Salt

Bacteria

Pesticides

22

What is example of hazardous exposure from inhalation?

Environmental tobacco smoke

Smoke

Asbestos

Legionella

23

What are examples of hazardous exposure from dermal?

UV light

Bacteria

Cosmetics

24

Why was asbestos used in construction?

Good insulating properties

25

What do disasters lead to?

Exposure to hazardous agents

26

What are examples of disasters leading to exposure of hazardous agents?

9/11 caused asbestos containing dust to be released

Industrial accident near Milan in 1976 caused exposure to TCDD

Pesticide plant released 40 tons of MIC gas by mistake in 1984

27

How many fatal occupational health injuries occur in the UK each year?

144

28

What line of work are most fatal occupational health injuries in?

Construction

29

How many non-fatal occupational health injuries are there each year?

550,000

30

How many deaths per year are due to past exposure to harmful working conditions?

12,000