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Flashcards in Psychological Therapies Deck (45):

Psychoanalysis and related therapies - What is the central strategy?

To uncover experiences that are repressed in the unconscious mind and integrate them into the person's conscious mind and personality.


Techniques used to recover repressed experiences include:

1. Free association.
2. Interpratation of dreams.
3. Analysis of transference reaction.


Techniques used to recover repressed experiences - Free association:

1. In psychoanalysis, the person lies on a couch in a reclined position facing away from the therapist and says whatever comes to mind (free association).
2. In therapies related to psychoanalysis, the person sits in a chair and talks while facing the therapist.


Techniques used to recover repressed experiences - Interpretation of dreams:

Used to examine unconscious conflicts and impulses.


Techniques used to recover repressed experiences - Analysis of transference reactions:

The person's unconscious responses to the therapist - Used to examine important past relationships.


People who are appropriate for using psychoanalysis and related therapies should have the following characteristics:



In psychoanalysis, people receive treatment how often?

4-5 times weekly for 3-4yrs.


Related therapies are more ...?

Brief and more direct than psychoanalysis - Brief dynamic psychotherapy is limited to 12-40 weekly sessions.


Behavioral therapies - Are based on ...?

LEARNING THEORY = Symptoms are relieved by unlearning maladaptive behavior patterns + alternative negative thinking patterns.


Behavioral therapies - What is the main difference from psychoanalysis and related therapies?

The patient's history and UNCONSCIOUS CONFLICTS ARE IRRELEVANT = NOT EXAMINED in behavioral therapies.


Behavioral therapies - Mention some therapies:

1. Systematic desensitization.
2. Aversive conditioning.
3. Flooding and implosion.
4. Token economy.
5. Biofeedback.
6. Cognitive/Behavioral therapy.


Systematic desensitization - Management of phobias - Strategy:

1. In the past, through the process of classical conditioning, the person associated an innocuous object with fear-provoking stimulus until the innocuous object became frightening.
2. In the present, increasing doses of the fear-provoking stimulus are paired with a relaxing stimulus to induce a relaxation response.
3. Because one cannot simultaneously be fearful and relaxed (reciprocal inhibition), the person shows less anxiety when exposed to the fear-provoking stimulus in the future.


Aversive conditioning - Management of paraphilias (eg pedophilia) or addictions (eg smoking) - Strategy:

1. Classical conditioning is used to pair a maladaptive but pleasurable stimulus with an aversive or painful stimulus (eg shock) so that the 2 became associated.
2. The person ultimately stops engaging in the maladaptive behavior because it automatically provokes an unpleasant response.


Flooding and implosion - Management of phobias - Strategy?

1. The person is exposed to an actual (flooding) or imagined (implosion) overwhelming dose of the feared stimulus.
2. Through the process of habituation the person becomes accustomed to the stimulus and is no longer afraid.


Token economy - MC use?

To increase positive behavior in a person who is severely disorganized (eg psychotic), autistic, or mentally retarded.


Token economy - Strategy?

1. Through the process of operant conditioning, desirable behavior (eg shaving, ,hair combing) is reinforced by a reward or positive reinforcement (eg token).
2. The person increases the desirable behavior to gain the reward.


Biofeedback - MC use:

To manage:
1. HTN.
2. Raynaud.
3. Migraine and tension.
4. Headaches.
5. Chronic pain.
6. Fecal incontinence.
7. Temporomandibular joint pain.


Biofeedback - Strategy?

1. Through the process of operant conditioning, the person is given ongoing physiologic information (eg BP measurement), which acts as reinforcement (eg when BP drops).
2. The person uses this info along with relaxation techniques to control visceral changes (eg heart rate, BP, smooth muscle tone).


Cognitive/Behavioral therapy - MC use:

To manage:
1. Mild to moderate DEPRESSION.
2. Somatoform disorders.
3. Eating disorders.


Cognitive/Behavioral therapy - Strategy?

1. Weekly, for 15-25wks, the person is helped to identify distorted, negative thoughts about him- or herself.
2. The person replaces these negative thoughts with positive, self-assuring thoughts and symptoms improve.


Psychological therapies - Other therapies?

1. Group therapy.
2. Family therapy.
3. Marital/couples therapy.
4. Supportive therapy.
5. Interpersonal therapy.
6. Stress management.


Group therapy - Targeted population:

1. People with a common problem (eg rape victims).
2. People with personality disorders or other interpersonal problems.
3. People who have trouble interacting with therapists as authority figures in individual therapy.


Family therapy - Targeted population:

1. Children with behavioral problems.
2. Families in conflict.
3. People with eating disorders or substance abuse.


Marital/couples therapy - Targeted population:

1. Domestic partners with communication or psychosexual problems.
2. Domestic partners with differences in values.


Supportive therapy - Targeted population?

1. People who are experiencing a life crisis.
2. Chronically mentally ill people dealing with ordinary life situations.


Interpersonal therapy - Targeted population:

People with emotional difficulties owing to problems with interpersonal skills.


Stress management - Targeted population:

People with anxiety disorders or stress-related illnesses (eg headaches, HTN).


Group therapy - 2 types:

1. Group with therapists.
2. Leaderless groups.


Groups with therapists:

Groups of about 8 people with a common problem or negative life experience usually meet weekly for 1-2hours; sharing the therapist reduces COST.


Groups with therapist - Members of the group provide what?

The opportunity to express feelings as well as FEEDBACK, SUPPORT, and FRIENDSHIP to each other.


Group therapy - The therapist role?

Little input - He or she facilitates and observes the members' interpersonal interactions.


Leaderless groups:

No one person is in authority.


Leaderless groups - Members of the group provide each other with ...?

Support and practical help for a shared problem (eg alcoholism, loss of a loved one, a specific illness).


Leaderless groups - 12step groups like ...?

1. Narcotics Anonymous (NA).
2. Overeaters Anonymous (OA).
are based on the alcoholic anonymous (AA) leaderless group model.


Family therapy - Family systems theory:

Family therapy is based on the family systems idea that psychopathology in one family member (ie the identified patient) reflects DYSFUNCTION OF THE ENTIRE FAMILY.


Because all members of the family cause behavioral changes in other members, ...?



Strategies of family therapy include identifying:

1. DYADS (ie subsystems between two family members.
2. TRIANGLES (ie dysfunctional alliances between 2 family members against a 3rd member).
3. BOUNDARIES (ie barriers between subsystems) that may be too rigid or too permeable.


Specific techniques are used in family therapy - (3):

1. Mutual accommodation.
2. Normalizing boundaries.
3. Redefining blame.


Mutual accommodation?

ENCOURAGED. This is a process in which family members work toward meeting each other's needs.


Normalizing boundaries:

Between subsystems and reducing the likelihood of triangles is ENCOURAGED.


Redefining blame:

Encouraging family members to reconsider their own responsibility for problems) is another important technique.


Supportive and interpersonal relationship - Supportive therapy:

Aimed not at insight into problems, but rather at helping people feel protected and supported during life crises (eg serious illness of a loved one).


For people with chronic mental illnesses, supportive therapy ...?

May be used over many years along with medication.


Interpersonal therapy:

Based on the idea that psychiatric problems such as anxiety and depression are based on difficulties in dealing with others, interpersonal therapy aims to develop INTERPERSONAL SKILLS in 12-16 weekly sessions.


Psychoanalysis and related therapies - Overview?

Psychotherapeutic treatments based on Freud's concepts of the:
1. Unconscious mind.
2. Defense mechanisms.
3. Transference reactions.