Flashcards in School Age, Adolescence, Special Issues of Development, and Adulthood Deck (44):
What is the motor development in the typical grade-school child, 7-11yrs?
Engages in complex motor tasks (e.g. plays baseball, skips rope).
Mention the social characteristics of the school-age child?
1. Prefers to play with children of the same sex - avoids and is critical of those of the opposite sex.
2. Identifies with the parent of the same sex.
3. Has relationships with adults other than parents.
4. Demonstrates little interest in psychosexual issues.
5. Has internalized a moral sense of right and wrong (conscience) and understands how to follow rules.
True or false? School-age children are typically interviewed and examined by the doctor with the mother present.
What are the cognitive characteristics of the school-age child?
1. Industrious and organized (e.g. gathers collections of objects).
2. Has the capacity for logical thought and can determine that objects have more than one property. (e.g. an object can be both red and metal).
3. Understands the concepts of conservation and serialism.
What is the concept of conservation?
Involves understanding that a quantity of a substance remains the same regardless of the size of the container or shape in it (e.g. two containers may contain the same amount of water even though one is a tall, thin tube, and the other a short, wide bowl).
What is the concept of seriation?
Involves the ability to arrange objects in order with respect to their sizes or other quantities.
When does puberty occur?
In early adolescence (11-14).
What are the main features of puberty?
1. The development of secondary sex characteristics and increased skeletal growth.
2. Menarche in girls (11-14 average).
3. First ejaculation in boys (12-15 average).
4. Cognitive maturation and formation of the personality.
5. Sex drives --> expressed through physical activity + masturbation (daily masturbation is typical).
True or false? Early adolescents show strong sensitivity to the opinion of peers.
True or false? Early adolescents are generally obedient and unlikely to seriously challenge parental authority.
What alterations in expected patterns of development may occur in early adolescence?
3. Late breast development in girls
4. Nipple enlargement in boys --> usually temporary but may concern the boy and his parents.
What are the characteristics of middle adolescence (15-17)?
1. Great interest in gender roles, body image, and popularity.
2. Heterosexual crushes (love for an unattainable person such as a rock star) is common.
3. Homosexual experiences may occur.
4. Efforts to develop an identity by adopting current teen fashion in clothing + music may lead to conflict with peers over family.
True or false? Education about obvious short-term benefits rather than references to long-term consequences of behavior is more likely to decrease teenager's unwanted behavior.
What are the Tanner stages of sexual development?
1. Genitalia and associated structures are the same as in childhood, nipples are slightly elevated in girls.
2. Scan, straight pubic hair, testes enlarge, scrotum develops texture, slight elevation of breast tissue in girls.
3. Pubic hair increases over the pubis and becomes curly, penis increases in length and testes enlarge.
4. Penis increases in width, glans develops, scrotal skin darkens, areola rises above the rest of the breast in girls.
5. Male and female genitalia are like adult, pubic hair now is also on thighs, areola is no longer elevated above the breast in girls.
Discuss the main features of the development of late adolescents (18-20).
1. Develop morals, ethics, self-control.
2. Realistic appraisal of their own abilities.
3. Become concerned with humanitarian issues and world problems.
4. SOME, but not all, develop the ability for abstract reasoning (Piaget's stage of formal operations).
What is the possible role confusion, that adolescents may experience?
In an effort to form one's identity, an identity crisis commonly develops --> if not handled effectively --> role confusion.
To what may role confusion lead?
What is the average age of first sexual intercourse in the US?
16. (By 19, most men and women have had sexual intercourse).
What percentage of sexually active teenagers do not use contraceptives and why?
Fewer than half.
1. Believe that they will not get pregnant.
2. Lack of access to contraceptives.
3. Lack of education about which methods are most effective.
Can physicians provide minors (persons under 18) with contraceptives without parental knowledge or consent?
What teenager issues are commonly discussed without the presence of the parents?
Because of their potential sensitivity:
1. Sexuality issues
2. Drug abuse
3. Issues concerning physical appearance (obesity)
What factors predispose adolescent girls to pregnancy?
2. Poor school achievement
3. Divorced parents
True or false? Pregnant teenagers are at high risk for obstetric complications because they are less likely to get prenatal care, and because they are physically immature.
What do the toddlers (15mos - 2,5yrs) fear while being hospitalized?
Fear of separation from the parent more than they fear bodily harm, pain, or death.
What do the children of preschool years (2.5 - 6yrs) fear while being hospitalized?
Child's greatest fear is of bodily harm.
Do school-age children (7-11yrs) cope well with hospitalization?
YES - This is the best age to perform elective surgery.
How do ill adolescents cope with doctors?
May challenge the authority of doctors and nurses and resist being different from peers --> Lack of adherence to medical advice.
What may be the response of a child with an ill parent or sibling?
Acting badly at school or home --> acting out.
For what are adopted children, particularly those adopted after infancy, at increased risk?
For behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence.
True or false? Children should be told by their parents that they are adopted at the earliest age possible to avoid the chance of others telling them first.
What are the 2 MC GENETIC causes of mental retardation?
2. Fragile X
Do mildly (IQ 50-69) and moderately (IQ 35-49) mentally retarded children and adolescents that they are handicapped?
Yes --> become frustrated + social withdrawn.
What is the Vineland social maturity scale?
Can be used to evaluate social skills and skills for daily living in mentally retarded and other challenged individuals.
What are the 2 main features of early adulthood (20-40yrs)?
1. At about 30, there is a period of reappraisal of one's life.
2. The adult's role in society is defined, physical development peaks, and the adult becomes independent.
What is the stage of intimacy versus isolation, according to Erikson?
If the individual does not develop the ability to sustain an intimate relationship by this stage of life, he or she may experience emotional isolation in the future. (30yrs).
What is the major characteristic of a person in middle adulthood?
Possess more power and authority than at other life stages.
What are the responsibilities in middle adulthood (40-65)?
The individual either maintains a continued sense of productivity or develops a sense of emptiness --> Erikson's stage of generativity versus stagnation.
Many men in their middle 40s or 50s exhibit a middle life crisis. To what may this crisis lead?
1. Change in profession or lifestyle.
2. Infidelity, separation, or divorce.
3. Increased use of alcohol or drugs.
With what is midlife crisis particularly associated?
With an awareness of one's own aging and death + severe and unexpected lifestyle changes (e.g. death of a spouse, loss of a job, serious illness).
What is defined as climacterium?
The change in physiologic function that occurs during midlife.
What are the consequences of climacterium in men?
1. Decreased muscle strength
2. Physical endurance
3. Sexual performance occur in midlife
What defines the end of menopause?
Absence of menstruation for 1 year.
True or false? Most women experience menopause with relatively few physical or psychological problems.