Psychology Book Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology Book Test 3 Deck (60):
1

Type A Personality

Competitive, impatient, and ambitious

2

Resistance Stage

Body attempts to return to a normal state by restoring spent energy and repairing damage; arousal remains high; anger, fatigue

3

Rationalization

Use of self-justifications to explain away unacceptable behaviors

4

Pleasure Principle

The demand for instant gratification without regard to social rules or customs

5

Maslow

Developed the self-actualization principle

6

Standard Scores

Scores that represent an individual's relative deviation from the mean of the standardized sample

7

Allport

Said personality traits are inherited but influenced by experience

8

Individualistic Culture

A culture that emphasizes individual identity and personal accomplishments

9

Acculturative

Demands faced by immigrants in adjusting to a host culture

10

Personality

The relatively stable constellation of psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns that account for our individuality

11

Internal Locus Control

Rewards or reinforcements in life are a direct consequence of their own actions

12

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Most common form of skin cancer

13

Multiple Approach-Avoidance

Involves two or more goals, each with compelling positive and negative characteristics

14

Collectivistic Culture

A culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations

15

Karen Horney

Studied basic anxiety (children feeling isolated and helpless) and basic hostility (deep form of resentment toward parents)

16

Distress

Unpleasant state of physical or mental pain or suffering

17

Genital Stage

Puberty
People seek sexual intimacy

18

Oral Stage

Birth-18 months
Put things in mouth, clingy, passive

19

Approach-Approach

Two positive but mutually exclusive goals exist

20

Phallic Stage

3-6 years old
Oedipus/Electra complex

21

Fixations

Constellations of personality traits characteristic of a particular stage of psychosexual development, resulting from either excessive or inadequate gratification

22

Traumatic Stressors

Potentially life-threatening events

23

Walter Mischel

Said behavior is influenced by situational variables ad person variables

24

Encoding Strategies

Personal perceptions of events

25

Julian Rotter

Came up with the Locus of Control

26

General Adaptation Syndrome

Selye's term for the three-stage response of the body to persistent or intense stress

27

Hypothalamus

Small endocrine gland located in the midbrain that coordinates the response to stress

28

Preconscious

The part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention

29

Surface Traits

Can be inferred from behavior

30

Source Traits

Deep level of personality, must be inferred based on underlying relationships

31

Hans-Eysenck

Extraverted-Neurotic
Extraverted-Stable
Introverted-Neurotic
Introverted-Stable

32

Sublimation

Channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially constructive pursuits

33

Antibodies

Protein molecules that serve to mark antigens for destruction by specialized lymphocytes

34

Corticosteroids

Adrenal hormones that increase the body's resistance to stress by increasing the availability of stored nutrients to meet the increased energy demands of stressful events

35

Reciprocal Determinism

Cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors influence each other

36

Outcome Expectations

Predictions of the outcomes of behavior

37

Efficacy Expectations

Predictions you hold about your ability to perform tasks or behaviors you set our to accomplish

38

Adrenal Cortex

The outer layer of the adrenal glands that secretes corticosteroids

39

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

Pituitary hormone that activates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids

40

Alarm Stage

First stage of the general adaptation syndrome involving mobilization of the body's resources to cope with an immediate stressor

41

Approach-Avoidance

A goal has both positive and negative qualities

42

Creative Self

Aware of itself and organizes goal-seeking behavior

43

Inferiority Complex

Children feel inferior and want to compensate

44

Adrenal Medulla

Inner part of the adrenal glands that secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline

45

Unconditional Positive Regard

Valuing another person as having intrinsic worth

46

Conditional Regard

Valuing a person only when the person's behavior meets certain standards

47

Five Factor Model

Dominant trait model of personality
1. Neuroticism
2. Extraversion
3. Openness
4. Agreeableness
5. Conscientiousness

48

Antigens

Substances that are recognized by the immune system as a foreign to the body and that induce it to produce antibodies to defend against them

49

Psychological Hardiness

A cluster of personality traits associated with an increased resilience to stress

50

Self Ideals

Our idealized sense of who or what we should be

51

Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis

The integrated system of endocrine glands involved in the body's response to stress

52

Exhaustion Stage

Heart rate and respiration decrease
Disease of adaptation (kidney, heart, depression)

53

Latency Stage

Ages 6-12
Sexual impulses are dormant

54

Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud's theory of personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts

55

Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone

A hormone released by the hypothalamus that induces the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone

56

Anal Stage

18mos-3 years

57

Avoidance-Avoidance

Both opposing goals are unpleasant

58

Id

Instinctual impulses

59

Reaction Formation

Behaving in a way that is opposite of one's true wishes or desires

60

Interleukin-6

Associated with heart disease, diabetes, and cancer