Psychology Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology Exam 3 Deck (86)
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1

How information gets into memory, involves forming a memory code from stimulus

Encoding

2

How info is maintained in memory

Storage

3

How is information pulled out of memory

Retrieval

4

Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli

Attention

5

T/F memory is negatively affected by inattention/multitasking

True

6

Types of encoding and what they mean

Structural: shallow processing that emphasizes physical structure (ex. shapes form letters)
Phonemic: emphasizes what a word sounds like
Semantic: emphasizes meaning of word (understanding word meanings)

7

Involves deciding how or whether or not information is personally relevant (improving encoding methods)

Self-referent encoding

8

Involves creating visual images to help remember concepts/words (improving encoding method)

Visual Imagery

9

Process by which a stimulus is linked to other information at the time of encoding (ex. self-generated examples)

Elaboration

10

Order of storage components

Sensory memory --> short term memory --> long term memory

11

Temporary storage that information passes before reching short or longer term memory, preserves info through the senses; lasts .25 seconds

Sensory memory

12

Limited capacity, maintains information for 20 seconds, depends on phonemic encoding, rehearsal common in this

Short-Term Memory

13

Unlimited storage capacity, believed to never go away

Long-Term Memory

14

Storing info in chunks, breaking large amounts into smaller ones

Chunking

15

Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events; stay forever, inaccurate and become less detailed as time goes on

Flashbulb memory

16

The tendency to remember similar or related items in groups

Clustering

17

Multilevel classification system based on common properties among items

Conceptual Hierarchy

18

The temporary inability to remember something you know, can be helped by retrieval cues

Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

19

The process of making inferences about the origin of memories; a memory derived from one source misattributed to the other

Source monitoring error (hear something on CNN, later say your friend told you that thing)

20

More common than source monitoring errors, involves recalling to whom one has told what

Destination Memory Failure

21

Thinking you have learned something, but really you have not because you can't remember it

Psuedoforgetting

22

Proposes that people forget information due to competition from other material

Interference (the amount of interference depends on the similarity in material)

23

Method of retention that requires a person to reproduce information without cues

Recall (ex. person must memorize 10 words and write them down)

24

Method of retention that requires a person to select previously learned information from other options, typically yields higher scores than recall

Recognition

25

Method of retention in which the person memorizes a second time to see how much time and effort is saved by learning before

Relearning

26

Chronological, dated recollections of personal experience

Episodic Memory (ex. first kiss)

27

Factual knowledge

Semantic Memory (ex. dog has 4 legs)

28

Memory of Factual information

Declarative Memory (this bike has a handlebar)

29

Memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, emotional memories

Nondeclarative Memory (how to ride a bike)

30

Types of amnesia

Retrograde: Loss of memories prior to injury
Anterograde: Loss of memories after injury

Both occur when the medial temporal area of the brain is destroyed