Psychology Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology Exam 4 Deck (91)
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1

Branch of psychology concerned with the way one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others

Social Psychology

2

Perceptions associated with physically attractive people

Sociable, friendly, warm, well-adjusted (these perceptions are due to the media)

3

Normal cognitive processes involving widely held social schemas that led people toe expect other to have certain characteristics due to their membership in a specific group

Stereotypes

4

Negative attitude toward a person due to group membership

Prejudice

5

Cognitive, Affective, behavioral elements of prejudice

Cognitive (thoughts): Ex. women aren't good for leadership
Affective (emotions): ex. women in leadership roles makes me mad
Behavioral (actions): ex. I wouldn't hire a woman as a manager

6

The action of behaving differently towards someone due to their group membership

Discrimination

7

Group one identifies with, shows favoritism towards

Ingroup

8

Group one does not identify with, shows derogatory reactions towards them

Outgroup

9

Inferences people draw as to the causes of events, behavior (of themselves and others)

Internal Attributions: behavior caused by internal(personal) traits
External Attributions: behavior caused by environmental problems

10

Observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior, blame own behavior on external attributions

Self-serving bias

11

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Collectivism is more society/community-minded (Asian countries) and put group goals ahead of personal goals. Individualism focuses on personal goals over community/group goals (westernized cultures)

12

What is defensive attribution

Person blames the victim/victim's problems on internal attributions because they want to believe the world is okay and that wouldn't happen to them

13

Says males and females of approximately equal attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners

Matching Hypothesis

14

Where a partner helps the other one feel good about oneself

Self-enhancement

15

Where dating people modify their attitudes to make them more congruent with the other person

Attitude Alignment

16

Covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle, automatic responses that people don't have conscious control over

Implicit Attitudes (ex. "we're all a little racist")

17

Attitudes we hold consciously and can readily describe

Explicit Attitudes

18

Traits of those with secure attachment as infants

Secure attachment in relationships, trusting, less worried, more motivated to show love in sex, less accepting of casual sex

19

Traits of those with anxious-ambivalent attachment as infants

Love accompanied by jealousy, fear of rejection, have sex to fix insecurities, less likely to practice safe sex, more likely to give into sex

20

Traits of those with avoidant attachment as infants

Lack intimacy and trust, casual sex, use sex to manipulate partners

21

What are source, receivers, messages, channels , and factors of message being received

Source: person sending message
Receiver: person to whom message is sent
Message: Info transmitted
Channels: How the message is sent
Factors: Credibility, expertise, trust, likability, similarity

22

Says that repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a greater liking of the stimulus

Exposure Effect

23

Related cognitions contradict each other, accompanied by tension; (ex. A person sees themselves as hard working but procrastinates a project ---> the person will either change beliefs of what hard work is or justify their procrastination)

Cognitive Dissonance

24

Yielding to real or imagined social pressure; who did these tests/research

Conformity (Asch did tests using cards--6 people, the last person knows what everyone else chose and is more likely to just side with the others)

25

Milgram's research dealt with what

People obey authority figures even at the expense of others

26

What does the bystander effect say

People are less likely to provide needed help in groups than when alone because they believe someone else will fix the problem

27

Group discussion strengthens a dominant point of view and produces a shift to more extreme decision

Group polarization

28

Members of a group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision

Groupthink

29

3 factors that determine if someone has psychological disorder

1) Is it deviant? (against social norm)
2) Is it maladaptive? (impairs everyday behavior)
3) Does it cause personal distress?

30

Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease

Medical Model