Psychology in Context - Psychopathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology in Context - Psychopathology Deck (23)
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What is Deviation from Social Norms?

Not following societies standards of behaviour and attitude


State 3 cons of defining abnormality as Deviation from Social Norms.

1. Cultures vary, so there isn't one set of social "rules"

2. It can be used to justify the removal of "unwanted" people from a society

3. What is considered abnormal can change over time


What is Failure to Function Adequately?

Not being able to cope with the demands of everyday life


State the 5 criteria used to define abnormality using the Failure to Function Adequately definition.

1. Dysfunctional Behaviour
2. Observer Discomfort
3. Unpredictable Behaviour
4. Irrational Behaviour
5. Personal Distress


State one con of defining abnormality as Failure to Function Adequately.

If you can tick the box for more than one of the criteria, the person's behaviour is considered abnormal. This seems unfair


What is Deviation from Ideal Mental Health?

Not having all 6 conditions associated with ideal mental health as stated by Jahoda (1958)


State the 6 conditions associated with ideal mental health listed by Jahoda (1958).

1. Positive self-attitude
2. Self-actualization
3. Resistance to stress
4. Personal autonomy
5. Accurate perception of reality
6. Adaptation to the environment


State 3 cons of defining abnormality as Deviation from Ideal Mental Health.

1. It can be hard to meet all the requirements

2. They're subjective

3. A serial killer may be resistant to stress etc. but society wouldn't consider them to be in good mental health


What is Statistical Infrequency?

Displaying statistically rare behaviour


State 4 cons of defining abnormality as Statistical Infrequency.

1. It doesn't take into account desirability of the behaviour, only the frequency e.g. IQ

2. There's no distinction between rare, slightly odd behaviour, and rare, psychologically abnormal behaviour

3. There's no definite cut-off point where normal behaviour become abnormal behaviour

4. Hassett and White (1989) argue that statistically infrequency can't be used to define abnormality because some behaviours that are considered psychologically abnormal are actually quite common e.g. mild depression


What is Depression?

A mood disorder


What is a Mood Disorder characterized by?

Strong emotions which can influence a person's ability to function normally


What can a Mood Disorder affect?

A person's perceptions, thinking and behaviour


What is Major Depression?

An episode of depression that can occur suddenly


What is another term for Major Depression?

Unipolar Disorder


What can Major Depression be?

Reactive - Caused by external factors
Endogenous - Caused by internal factors


What is Manic Depression?

An alternation between 2 mood extremes (mania and depression)


What is another term for Manic Depression?

Bipolar Disorder


State 2 features of Manic Depression.

1. The change in mood often occurs in regular cycles of days or weeks

2. Episodes of mania involve over-activity, rapid speech, and feeling extremely happy or agitated


State 4 Behavioural Symptoms of Depression.

1. Sleep Disturbances - Insomnia or Hypersomnia

2. Change in Appetite - Eating more/less than usual or gaining/losing weight

3. Pain - Headaches, joint ache, and muscle ache

4. Lack of Activity - Social withdrawal and loss of sex drive


State 3 Cognitive Symptoms of Depression.

1. Experiencing persistent negative beliefs about themselves and their abilities

2. Suicidal thoughts

3. Slower thought processes - Difficulty concentrating and making decisions


State 3 Emotional Symptoms of Depression.

1. Extreme feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and despair

2. Diurnal Mood Variation - Changes in mood throughout the day

3. Anhedonia - No longer enjoying activities or hobbies that used to be pleasurable


What does the DSM say about diagnosis of Depression?

At least 5 symptoms must have been present nearly everyday for at least 2 weeks