Flashcards in Psychosocial-Adult Deck (42):
Describe Allen Cognitive Level 1
Need 24 hour nursing care to attend to basic self needs
Beginning to respond to stimuli
Describe ACL 2 "Gross body movements"
Describe ACL 3 "Manual Actions"
Low 3: Learning to manipulate familiar objects
High 3: ADL's with supervision
Describe ACL 4 "Familiar Activity"
Only notice obvious mistakes
Min A for IADLs for safety and problem solving issues
Can be left alone for part of day, or live alone with day assistance
High 4: Supported employment
Describe ACL 5 "Learning new Activity"
SBA for problem solving during new activities
Weekly checks at home or work
High 5: Benefit from assisstance in planning for future events
Describe ACL 6 "Normal"
What are the 5 principles of motivational interviewing?
1. Deal with resistance
2. Support and develop discrepancy
3. Support self-efficacy
What happens after electro-convulsive therapy? ECT
ECT is immediately followed by a short, required bed rest, especially if residual symptoms include headache, nausea, and dizziness; regular activities can then be resumed.
Explain the Cognitive Disability frame of reference
Uses client's strengths to allow for function
Ex: training caregivers to provide appropriate environmental supports
Describe the Recovery Model
Encourages the supports necessary for a person to recover within a context that is comfortable for that person
May include peer support and teaching
Define aphasia and apraxia
Aphasia: Inability to communicate through writing, speech, or signs
Apraxia: Inability to perform purposeful movements without sensory or motor impairment
What are interventions for substance abuse issues?
1. Psychosocial therapies: coping, stress management, and social skills training
2. Cognitive based: increasing motivation and control of life through occupations
What are interventions for Schizophrenia?
1. Illness management and recovery
2. Assertive community treatment
3. Family psychoeducation
4. Supported employment
5.Integrated dual diagnosis treatment
What are interventions for mood disorders (bipolar, depression etc)?
1.Cognitive-behavioral therapy to uncover distored beliefs and faulty thinking patterns
2. Interpersonal psychotherapy to improve interpersonal and psychosocial functioning
What are interventions for anxiety disorders?
1. Cognitive-Behavioral training to enable clients to approach anxiety situations and understand their fear cycles and distorted beliefs
2. Relaxation therapy
3. Expressive writing to understand and accept teh occurrence of stressors
What are the main goals of OT intervention with eating disorders?
1. Physical harm reduction
2. Cognitive reconstruction
3. Psychosocial functional enablement
What are examples of interventions for eating disorders?
1. Menu planning and meal prep
2. Lifestyle redesign and IADLs training
3. Communication and assertiveness training
4. Stress management
5. Projective artwork and use of crafts
6. Relapse prevention
7. Body image improvement
What are some OT interventions for personality disorders?
1. Development and maintenance of collaborative relationships
2. Consistency during treatment
3. Validation of client's feelings
4. Development and maintenance of motivation for change
5.Mood stabilization and expression of appropriate emotions
6.Promotion of increased self-concept, self-esteem, insight, and judgment
What are the goals of an acute or inpatient pysch. hospitalization?
1. manage behavior
2. stabilize on medication
3. refocus on engagement in occupation
What are the goals of long term psych. hospitalization?
1. Stabilize symptoms
2. ensure adherance to medication
3. habituate patterns of ADLs
What are the 5 principles of the IRM?
1. Critical self-awarenss and interpersonal self-discipline are fundamental for the intentional use of self
2. Practitioners must "keep head before heart"
3. "Mindful "empathy"
4.The client defines a successful relationship
5. Must balance a focus on activities with a focus on the interpersonal
What is the focus of task-oriented groups?
Producing somethign as a group
What is the focus of activity groups?
Focus on function and replicating living in the community or family.
Empasis on direct experience and the use of activity to develop skills
When should the group leadership be directive?
Participants have low cognitive abilities
When should the group leadership be facilitative?
When the group demonstrates fair to good insight and motivation.
OT is in charge of goals and decision making, but the group determines the activiites
When should the leadership be advisory?
When the group is mature and able to effectively resolve conflict and have high verbal abilities
What is the first stage Cara and Macrae's group stages?
1. Initial stage: PS learn expectations and get to know each other.
2. Too preoccupied to disclose and concerned with trust
What is the 2nd stage of Cara and Macrae's gorup stages?
1. Transition Stage: PS wonder about acceptance and safety
2. They struggle with conforming versus risk taking behavior
What is the third stge of Cara and Macrae's group strages?
1. Working stage
2. Trust is built, group is cohesive
3. PS communicate and share responsibility effectively
What is the fourth stage of Cara and Macrae's group stages?
1. Final stage
2. PS evaluate experience and deal with feelings of completion
What is a parallel group?
PS complete tasks side by side with little to no interaction
What is a project group?
emphasis is on the task, some interaction occurs
What is a egocentric-cooperative group?
interaction among ps is expected
What is a mature group?
Participants assume leadership roles and address each other's needs
What is the focus of a psychodynamic group?
1. to explore symbolic meaning of activities
2. Impulse control or self-expression
What are the 4 principles of cognitive behavior approaches?
1. Shaping: desired behaviors are rewarded
2. Chaining: Learn one step at a time
3. Reinforcement: Positive feedback
4. Practice- repetition
What techniques are used in cognitive behavior approaches?
1. relaxation groups to change how one thinks about things
2. Role playing to teach skills
3. teaching and learning
What are strategies for dealing with hallucinations
1. Distraction free environment
2. Highly structured, simple, concrete and tangible activities
3. Attempt to redirect to reality based thinking and actions
What are strategies for dealing with Delusions?
1. Do not refute the delusion
2. Redirect to reality based thinking and actions
3. Avoid validating the delusional material
What are strategies for dealing with akathisia?
1. Allow movement as needed if it doesn't interfere with the group activity
2. Participation on many levels is beneficial
3.Gross motor > fine motor or sedentary
What is akathisia?
a state of agitation, distress, and restlessness that is an occasional side-effect of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs.