Flashcards in PTSD Deck (19):
How does Disaster Syndrome work?
Three stages: Short-Term
What characterizes PTSD?
Experienced or witnessed traumatic event(s):
Event(s) involved actual or threatened death, serious injury or threat to the physical integrity of self or others
Learning of a trauma occurring to person close to individual
Response to event(s) involved intense fear, helplessness or horror and clinically significant distress or impairment
avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma
Duration of symptoms 1 month +
How might someone re-experience the event?
Act or feel as if the traumatic event were recurring (e.g., flashback)
Intense psychological distress to reminders
Physiological reactivity to internal or external cues
How might someone experience avoidance and numbing? (symptoms)
Avoidance of internal and external cues
Dissociative amnesia (no memory of trauma)
Diminished interest and participation
Detachment from others
Restricted range of affect (lower range of emotions)
Sense of foreshortened future (think they're going to die soon)
How might someone experience hyperarousal? (symptoms)
Irritability, anger outbursts
Problems with attention and concentration
Exaggerated startle response
What are the subtypes (specifiers - description for an individual) for PTSD?
Less than 3 months
3 months or more
With delayed onset
Onset 6 months or more after trauma
What characterizes acute stress disorder?
Duration of symptoms:
At least 2 days;
No more than 4 weeks
Within 4 weeks of trauma
What are some traumatic experiences commonly associated with PTSD?
Childhood physical abuse
Being threatened with a weapon
What is the relationship between rape and PTSD?
Most common cause of PTSD in women (acquaintance and stranger)
Paralytic effect of intense fear
Disclosing the rape
What is the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD?
Soldiers and civilians
Unpredictable and uncontrollable stressors
Protective aspect of wounds (Will shoot themselves to go home)
Goals of combat (If you believe in the cause you're less liekly to get PTSD)
What are some risk factors associated with PTSD?
Nature of stressor
Level of exposure to stressor
What are some Psychosocial and Sociocultural risk factors for PTSD?
Stress reaction seen as personal weakness
Self-blame, guilt (e.g., survivor)
Dissociation during trauma (amnesia or out-of-body experience)
History of disorders (family or self)
Insecure attachment style
Early separation from parents
Previous exposure to traumas
Trying to push the memories of trauma out of one's mind
Tendency to take personal responsibility for failure
Tendency to come with stress by focusing on emotions rather than of the problems themselves
What is the treatment for PTSD?
Medication - Controversial, May be specific to symptoms
Cognitive behavioral therapy: Imagery Based
Change the thought process
Direct exposure – not always possible
More effective than counselling or no intervention
Prolonged Exposure therapy:
Combined CBT approach that involves a step-by-step process
Being exposed to imagery or actual life situations reflecting trauma
Exposure is accompanied by changing thoughts and cognitive appraisals
Taught specific skills such as regulating and controlling breathing.
Research indicates that prolonged exposure therapy is effective.
When is it important to intervene?
Many experts on trauma agree that it is best to intervene in some fashion as soon as possible after a traumatic event, well before PTSD has a chance to develop.
What are some Protective factors for PTSD?
Strong social support
Higher cognitive ability
Secure attachement style
How does prolonged exposure therapy (PET) work?
possibility that it leads to the extinction of the fear response.
it may also change the meaning that stimuli have for people.
What are the symptoms of PTSD? What are the symptoms of acute PTSD?
Avoidance and numbing symptoms
Dissociative symptoms (during or after):
Reduced awareness of surroundings
Derealization (reality doesn't feel real)
Depersonalization (don't feel connected to yourself)
What are the biological theories of PTSD?
Ventral medial prefrontal cortex activity
Hyper-responsive prefrontal cortical region or amygdala region
May be related to noradrenergic system