Pulmonary Considerations for Pediatrics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Considerations for Pediatrics Deck (22):
1

Antibodies

-transplacentally derived antibodies gone by 3-4 months old
-after 3-4 months, increased risk of disease until they form own antibodies (by getting exposed to pathogens)

2

O2 Consumption of Newborn

-2x higher than adult
-6-6.7 ml O2/Kg min

(3.5 adult)

3

Children have decreased _____ which prevents infant from _____

-muscle strength
-stabilizing rib cage and using diaphragm efficiently

4

Newborn HR

-120 bpm average
-Range: 70-190 bpm

5

Newborn BP

-SBP: 40-70

6

Increased # of alveoli=

increased surface area for O2 diffusion

7

Kids Ribcage

-circular and horizontal until sit/stand & gravity pull it down
-causes flat diaphragm and decreased efficiency of accessory Mm

8

Kids' small airways=______, which leads to ______

-greater airflow resistance
-increased work of breathing and increased risk of obstruction

9

Pulmonary System Development

-begins @ 24-26 DAYS gestation
-alveoli still forming until age 8-10 YEARS
-Surfactant mature at 35 WEEKS gestation

10

Surfactant is mature at ____

35 weeks gestation

11

# alveoli at birth

25 million

12

# alveoli as adult

300 million

13

Surfactant

-enough to survive at 26-28 weeks gestation (but still sensitive)
-mature at 35 weeks gestation

14

Infant Diaphragm Fibers

-25% are Type I

(adults 50% Type I)

15

Neonate Respiratory Pattern

-irregular
-with apnea 5-10 sec
-True apnea= >20 sec

16

Collateral Ventilation Mechanisms

-Pores of Kohn
-Lambert's Canals

(alternate airway paths in case one is blocked)

17

Signs of Respiratory Distress/Failure in Infant/Toddler

-nasal flaring
-head bobbing
-cyanosis
-pallor
-audible expiratory grunting
-stridor on inspiration
-tachypnea
-tachy/bradycardia
-fatigue
-excessive sweating
-HTN/hypotension
-Hypoxemia
-hypercapnia
-acidosis
-seizures/coma
-restless/irritable
-headache

18

Infant PaO2 & PaCO2

Lower than adults

19

Infants compensate for breathing problems by _______ instead of _______ b/c they have little ___

-increasing RR
-increasing tidal volume
-pulmonary reserve

20

Pores of Kohn

-interconnections between alveoli
-(form at age 1-2 years)

21

Lambert's Canal

-connect ternimal/respiratory bronchioles to alveoli
-(form age 6-8 years old)

22

Newborn RR

30-60/min