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1

Explain why there was an increase in organised crime in the USA after 1919.

1. WW1 - Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20.- Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams were primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings -- socialists and other radicals (mainly immigrants) -> targets of the Red Scare eg. Sacco and Vanzetti-After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, the gov same democracy not shown to the public of America- postwar reconstruction at home.

Link: The stigma attached to drinking during WW1 also led to the Volstead Act 1919

2. Prohibition- introduced to dispose of the ‘evil’ in society by the temperance movement. - Gangs and criminals used prohibition as an opportunity to corrupt society. - Huge numbers of law-abiding people continued to drink illegally. - Illegal drinking dens had long flourished in big cities. -by 1925, there were as many as 100,000 illegal bars in NYC alone - respect for the law was lessened- In the year that prohibition was introduced, arrests for drunkenness and disorderly conduct increased by 41%.

Link: shift in the attitude of America away from the law.

3. Public opinion began to shift towards crime - media portrayed organised crime as being one step ahead of the law- Capone of Colosimo mob was glamorised by the media across the country- Even federal agents, judges were corrupted by gangs - George Cassidy served as Congress’s main bootlegger- Despite St.Valentine's day massacre 1929, numerous alleged murders -> Capone jailed for tax evasion

2

Explain why the USA introduced the Volstead Act in 1919

1. WW1 - different attitude to drinking- perceived as a pleasure -> drinking began to be seen as immoral and disrespectful. - could not drink while men were fighting and dying on the battlefields. -Although soldiers returned from the war victorious, many soldiers did not return -same attitude of alcohol continued in America in 1919-The war also led the public to believe that drinking was unpatriotic -> many breweries were German in origin.Link: war also brought back emotionally damaged men who used alcohol as a release2. increased cases of domestic abuse -many wives and family members opposing alcohol -spread of the Temperance movement-2 major groups of temperance in 1919 -> Anti-Saloon League + the Women’s Christian Temperance Union-Anti-Saloon League established in 1893 -> doubled in size of supporters from 1918 to 1919-Although consisted of small town, rural americans, their message was heard by the American government -Both convinced the public that alcohol was the cause of poverty, misery, deprivation, violence and family breakdown. Link: A large contributor to the Temperance movement were industrialists.3. pressure from Industrialists on the government .- Within the temperance movements were huge figures such as Rockefeller -argued that alcohol damaged efficiency of workers- deceased the output of production in America. -industrialists significant in their contribution to the Volstead act - they handled the big business and money of America - necessary for the government to act on their behalf.

3

Explain why Warren Harding won the Presidential election of 1920

1. Wilson's failures - Wilson electoral promise 1916 US would not enter war-Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20. - Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings,-socialists and other radicals, whether immigrants or native‐born, were targets of the Red Scare. -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, same democracy not shown in US - Wilson partly responsible for this post-war impact-> negative attitudes toward black people, new immigrants, and labor strikes, and his international focus, resulted in a neglect of postwar reconstruction at home. -brought appeal to Harding's return to normalcyLink: Wilson advocated the League of Nations as a barrier against Bolshevism which contributed to the Red Scare. 2. Harding's Isolationism became a popular policy in US - L.o.N = collective security may draw US into unnecessary wars- Although Senate repealed T.o.V -> Wilson was too internationalist in nature - WW1 cost America approximately 32 billion dollars- sudden halt in the production of arms = recession- Shell production decreased from 16.4 million to 1 million in the span of a month- huge loss of jobs in the industry of arms manufacturing - economical problems resulting in WW1 would not be solved by yet another entanglement with foreign powers Link: WW1 marked a turning point in world history. 3. reduced the global influence of Europe- Eu allies owed America 11 billion dollars which transformed America from a net debtor to a net creditor. - NYC replaced London as the world's financial centre.- Before war, important for America to be involved in eu affairs-> after WW1, the eu allies no longer controlled sufficient military and economic resources to shape world affairs as before. -sense of self-sufficiency in America -evident that while other nations dependant on Am to survive, Am could strive ahead in Harding's isolationism.

4

Why did the KKK become so influential in the early 1920s?

1. Mass Immigration
- 1890-1913 - 4 million
- growth of slums, diversity
- religious tension eg. presence of Italian catholics threatened WASPS
- brought different values to Am. -> many could not be 'americanised'
- By equating WASPism with 'true americanism', discrimination against immigrants, catholics, jews and blacks became justified

Link: This heightened belief that 'true americanism' was being lost within Am. society led to many returning to Am. roots

2. Birth of a Nation
- depicted Klansmen as heroic soldiers fighting the war for true American values
- became a landmark of the Am. cinema
- By 1910, greater majority of Am. attended cinema
- Even Wilson was awed by the film
-> 'Colonel' Simmons revived KKK prompted by the fundamentalism and devout patriotism which the film portrayed

Link: Wilson's negative attitudes toward black people, new immigrants, and labor strikes, and his international focus, resulted in a neglect of postwar reconstruction at home.

2. post- WW1
- WW1 a fight for democracy -> increasingly Af. Am's believed this same democracy should be shown in US-
- Af. Am's remained second class citizens -> segregation remained
- National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People grew in membership from 1917
- Protests and riots -> 'Silent protest parade' NYC 07/17
- As more attention to Af. Am's, membership of KKK grew

5

Explain why the USA economy expanded so much and so fast between 1890 to 1920

1. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism Link: surge of immigrants fuelled BB 2. Rise of BB - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- trusts cut the cost of manufacture - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated- mutual dependency of government and BB 1896- led to minimal gov intervention in the economyLink: heightened gov intervention abroad stimulated the econ3. WW1 - When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive U.S. federal spending which shifted national production from civilian to war goods.- mobilisation of wartime economy increased efficiencies and stimulated manufacturing + agriculture- although wartime boom in agricultural production fell away, stimulus to industry carried on into 1920's -> factories working at full capacity

6

Explain why the Republican Party dominated the 1920s

1. Disillusion with Versailles- Democrats unpopular because Wilson inability to fulfil electoral promise 1916 - Democrats associated with internationalism - Paris peace treaties -> T.o.V -> L.o.N- Collective security clause may draw Am. into unnecessary wars - undermined 'self-determination' Link: Wilson's aggressive f.p. caused a loss of confidence for him within the public, Harding's return to 'normalcy' provided Am. public with the safety net they needed2. Return to Normalcy - Harding provided isolationism - Return to BB - laissez-faire gov. associated with econ. boom in 20's - allowed formation of trusts -> hire purchase + credit- high protectionist tariffs - culture of consumerism had come to replace the interest in politics -> decline in voters Link: democratic party associated promoted equality which was also associated with socialists and anarchists 3. Red Scare - end of WW1 led to a fear of anarchists - July 1921 -> Sacco and Vanzetti were tried and found guilty by Judge Webster Thayer - became illegal to criticise the government -McCarthyism -> practice of investigating and accusing persons in positions of power or influence of disloyalty, subversion or treason.

7

Explain why Warren Harding won the Presidential election of 1920

1. Wilson's failures - Wilson electoral promise 1916 US would not enter war-Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20. - Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings,-socialists and other radicals, whether immigrants or native‐born, were targets of the Red Scare. -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, same democracy not shown in US - Wilson partly responsible for this post-war impact-> negative attitudes toward black people, new immigrants, and labor strikes, and his international focus, resulted in a neglect of postwar reconstruction at home. -brought appeal to Harding's return to normalcyLink: Wilson advocated the League of Nations as a barrier against Bolshevism which contributed to the Red Scare. 2. Harding's Isolationism became a popular policy in US - L.o.N = collective security may draw US into unnecessary wars- Although Senate repealed T.o.V -> Wilson was too internationalist in nature - WW1 cost America approximately 32 billion dollars- sudden halt in the production of arms = recession- Shell production decreased from 16.4 million to 1 million in the span of a month- huge loss of jobs in the industry of arms manufacturing - economical problems resulting in WW1 would not be solved by yet another entanglement with foreign powers Link: WW1 marked a turning point in world history. 3. reduced the global influence of Europe- Eu allies owed America 11 billion dollars which transformed America from a net debtor to a net creditor. - NYC replaced London as the world's financial centre.- Before war, important for America to be involved in eu affairs-> after WW1, the eu allies no longer controlled sufficient military and economic resources to shape world affairs as before. -sense of self-sufficiency in America -evident that while other nations dependant on Am to survive, Am could strive ahead in Harding's isolationism.

8

Explain why the Palmer Raids took place in 1920

1. Bolshevik Revolution of 1917- Danger of a Bolshevik Revolution in the United States-Am wc is politically and economically the most uneducated working class in the world.- AM Socialists have some power. They can swing a million votes.- post-war recession made many believe that hard times may be coming -> this brought heightened fear of socialism-viewed labor unions as the primary method by which radicals acted in American society2. Radical actions of anarchists - A-G Palmer's home was bombed -numerous bombs intended for other government officials were intercepted -> Terror and outrage swept the country. - Riots broke out in cities across the country against the Union of Russian Workers and other organisations that the public believed to be filled with Communist conspirators3. Palmer's influence - In response to riots, Palmer created the General Intelligence Division in the Justice Department. J. Edgar Hoover was selected as the leader of this new division that would investigate the identities and actions of suspected revolutionaries. -believed the country to be in danger of a revolution, Palmer acted decisively. - After meeting with his advisors, he decided that the most appropriate action was mass arrests and deportation of foreign radicals.- It was on this premise that he ordered the first of the Palmer Raids.

9

Explain why the USA didn’t join the League of Nations.

1. Wilson's failures - Wilson electoral promise 1916 US would not enter war-Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20. - Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings,-socialists and other radicals, whether immigrants or native‐born, were targets of the Red Scare. -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, same democracy not shown in US - Wilson partly responsible for this post-war impact-> negative attitudes toward black people, new immigrants, and labor strikes, and his international focus, resulted in a neglect of postwar reconstruction at home. -brought appeal to Harding's return to normalcyLink: Wilson advocated the League of Nations as a barrier against Bolshevism which contributed to the Red Scare. 2. through WW1 the global influence of Europe reduced-did not need other nations to intervene in domestic matters- Eu allies owed America 11 billion dollars which transformed America from a net debtor to a net creditor. - NYC replaced London as the world's financial centre.- Before war, important for America to be involved in eu affairs-> after WW1, the eu allies no longer controlled sufficient military and economic resources to shape world affairs as before. -sense of self-sufficiency in America Link: shift from internationalism to isolationismHarding's Isolationism became a popular policy in US - L.o.N = collective security may draw US into unnecessary wars- Although Senate repealed T.o.V -> Wilson was too internationalist in nature - WW1 cost America approximately 32 billion dollars- sudden halt in the production of arms = recession- Shell production decreased from 16.4 million to 1 million in the span of a month- huge loss of jobs in the industry of arms manufacturing - economical problems resulting in WW1 would not be solved by yet another entanglement with foreign powers

10

Explain why President Wilson supported the League of Nations

1. Wilson was an idealist
-who wished to create a new world order which did not reflect the power politics and secret diplomacy which he thought had caused WW1
- when he first became President in 1913 he rejected the policies of past presidents and stressed the need for an ethical foreign policy.
- 1916, promised the residents of the Philippine Islands independence
- 1917, Puerto Rico achieved territorial status, and its residents became U.S. citizens.

L: Alongside his ideology came his religion.

2. He was sincere in his Christian principles,
-shown by his appointment of William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State, who had argued that international disputes should be settled peacefully. One of Bryan’s most famous lectures was called ‘The Prince of Peace’•
- Working closely with Secretary of State Bryan, Wilson signed 22 bilateral treaties which agreed to cooling-off periods and outside fact-finding commissions as alternatives to war in L. Am
-Wilson supported an organisation which offered a peaceful way of settling disputes,using collective security instead of international rivalries

L: This notion of peace was shown in Wilson's 14 points

3. the League was an essential part of the Fourteen Points and would be an essential component of the Peace Treaties
-wished for a ‘Peace without Victory’ which would give the smaller nations self-determination and a voice in international politics
eg. Belgium
– this evoked the principles of justice and fairness.
- Wilson's war message emphasised that the main goal of the war should be to end militarism and make the world "safe for Democracy," not merely to defend American ships. -the losses and suffering of WW1 deserved the creation of a new system which would ‘end wars’

11

Explain why Congress passed laws to limit the numbers of immigrants to the USA in the early 1920s

1. Anti-immigration laws were not a new phenomenon. This desire to limit immigration existed before the 1920's - Anti-Catholicism and anti-Semitism were common- widespread fear of immigrant radicalism -1884, Immigration Restriction League founded in Boston- claimed Am swamped by ‘lesser breeds’ - 1882, first Federal Immigration Act - closely followed by Chinese Exclusion Act in Cali - In 1907, the Gentleman’s Agreement- 1907 Dillingham Commission Report, recommending limits on immigration to avoid social problemsLink: Such feelings were heightened by WW1 2. WW1 acted as a catalyst - Once WW1 ended, many Ams regretted that their country had become involved in European affairs. - felt hostile to anything foreign. -Senate refused to ratify the ToV-refused to make the USA a member of L.o.N -Isolationism -> determination to curb immigration- new mood of American politics after election of Harding 21- avoid ‘alien contamination’ and to preserve the old Am stock ethnically before it was too lateLink: Harding's return to normalcy was a return to economy dominated politics3. 1920's Immigrants seen as a threat to Am. econ - Most ‘new’ immigrants unskilled -> looked for work in Am’s growing industries in the cities. -prepared to work in appalling conditions for very little pay. -Many were employed as strikebreakers. -trade unions resented the ‘new’ immigrants. -when WW1 ended wartime industries reduced production. -Troops returned seeking jobs in saturated labour market. -Am economy seemed destined for trouble. - Factories closed and people lost their jobs. - belief that immigrants taking native jobs

12

Explain why the automobile industry in the USA expanded during the 1920s

1. Mass Production and Entrepreneurs - Scientific management 'Taylorism + mass prod. techniques- 1929 -> 5.5 million cars made - Henry Ford set up 1st moving assembly line 1913 Detroit- Model T car $950 in 1914 -> $290 in 1929 - cheaper cars increased car consumerism Link: Anti-trust laws no longer limited Entrepreneurs, the Rep gov. allowed expansion of industry 2. Policies of Rep presidents- laissez-faire approach to econ - tendency not to prosecute monopolies allowed Ford a freer hand to build on profits - Federal Aid Highway Act 1921 -> set up a national highway system of roads > 75 million spent within a year -> sustained car prod. - expansion of credit and bank markets -> 1929 -> 60% of 26 million cars sold were on credit Link : Rep. gov hostility towards unions3. Weakness of unions- Employers, gov + courts backed 'yellow dog' contracts- meant workers could not strike- this kept unions weak -> stopped wages from rising - Ford banned his employees from joining trade unions- Allowed him to keep the cost of Model 'T' lower -> lost less days to strikes