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1

How important was President Theodore Roosevelt to the development of American imperialism in the years 1900 to 1914?

1. As President, TR pursued an expansionist foreign policy towards Latin America - Platt Amendment 1902 -> confirmed US influence over Cuba- 1904 ‘Roosevelt Corollary’ to MD implied USA could interfere where American interests involved -Roosevelt Corollary was set out by President Roosevelt in order to achieve further imperialism-announced that the USA should be recognised as a world power - American police would fully control its own ‘back yard’ in Latin America. -necessary and correct to intervene the affairs in weaker nations for Roosevelt to have stable, orderly and prosperous circumstances around America’s neighbourhood.2. Panama Canal embodied American imperialism.- 1906 TR began Panama Canal project- canal through Central America linking Atlantic and pacific- involved bringing a new country, Panama, into existence - forced Colombia to accept the existence of a new country- new state was completely under American control- canal completed 1914 -> expanded horizons of American trade3. TR had a determination to have USA recognised as a world power - 1905-> leading role in international response to Moroccan crisis- Offered American mediation to end of Russo-Jap war- Treaty of Portsmouth October 1905- achieved international prestige -> Nobel peace prize- ensured that Jap would not make excessive gain from military victory -> rise of Jap power already seen as a serious threat to Am. interests in Pacific 4. Natural Response - after 1890, there was a general drift towards imperialism by all the Great Powers - inevitable the USA would join in - the expansion of trade and industry in the US led directly to a more interventionist- intervention in China in 1900 Boxer Rebellion to protect Chinese trade - decision to enter SPAM 1898 to protect Am. business interest pre-dated TR-desire to control overseas markets existed before 1900 5. Taft's Dollar Diplomacy 1909 -economic form of imperialism -1912 used American bankers to provide loans to the new government of Nicaragua to support America’s mining interests. - DD used in the Far East in 1911 -> American financiers led by J.P. Morgan to join a European consortium that was backing railroad projects in China. - American bankers attempted to buy the South Manchurian railway in an attempt to block Russian and Japanese influence in China. - shows impact DD had on development of US imperialism - - negates the notion that Theodore Roosevelt was overly responsible for the development of US imperialism6. Wilson -> anti-imperialist view to Am. - re-instated Open door policy 1913 - Interventionist policy -> Mexican Revolution 1910-11- violence + instability threatened Am. business interests especially oil - 1914 -> Am. marines occupied port of Vera Cruz to 'restore order' - criticised by TR for not being 'tough' enough- remained neutral at outbreak of WW1- brought back anti-colonial ideas to Am; public -> 'must be impartial in thought as well as in action'

2

How important was public opinion in causing the USA to go to war in 1898 and again in 1917?

1. Public opinion 1898 - 'Yellow Press' Pulitzer + Hearst- highlighted Spanish atrocities in Cuba - blamed Spanish for sinking of USS Maine Feb 1898- 'Remember the Maine' pressurised Mckinley- Leaked ambassador De Lôme letter insulting Mckinley- harsh Spanish treatment of Cubans by General 'Butcher' Weyler- Mckinley -> "a duty..to humanity to intervene with force"- shifted public opinion from isolationist to interventionist2. Public opinion 1917 - Sinking of the Luisitania-reported by the press -> encouraged anti-German feeling and pro-war feeling- When Unrestricted German Submarine warfare began again Sussex March 1916 -> public sensitivity heightened-‘Laconia’ February 1917 only 2 Am deaths but the way media portrayed these deaths = war fever in Am. pub3. Politicians and the President aware of the significance of public opinion- public decided who got elected and the President will not usually act without support.- Wilson won 1916 election with promise of no war- entered war b/c public sympathy for GB increased - trad. relationship -> wanted to save relatives, friends etc from the Hun in 1917- similarly, Am population sympathetic to the Cuban revolt because of their trad. antiimperialist attitudes - factor towards Mckinley winning election 1900 was that he would bring Am. into SPAM 4. Economic factors-By 1898 Am significant tobacco + sugar trading links -many American investors in Cuba. -> America needed to protect business interest. - MD ensured trade between the US and these regions would be undisrupted which relates to their need to protect business interest in Cuba. - US provided 38% of Cuban imports by 1898 - US bankers lent $2.5 billion to Allies and only $27million to Germany by comparison- could not afford to let allies lose 5 . prestige and power - manifest destiny, a concept of expansionism.- Senator Henry Cabot Lodge -> expanding US influence to safeguard commercial interest + Mahan sea power- Monroe Doctrine of 1823 gave the gov right to protect sphere of influence- similarly, if G won WW1, G = word leading power- Zimmerman telegram suggested that G would attempt to remove Am. power through removing Am. sphere of influence6. Am. trad. values - Both Cuba and allies democracy were threatened- Spanish imperialism went against Am. values- Butcher Weyler -> inhumane approach went against Am. morals - Wilson changed his isolationist ideas because of the threat to democracy. -Entry into WW1 -> part of a moral crusade for a better world

3

How successful was Woodrow Wilson in achieving his aims in foreign policy in the years 1912 to 1920?

1. Anti-Imperial ideas in far east- Wilson turned away from DD in China- re-instated Open Door Policy with much support- gave diplomatic recognition to new regime in China that gained power after 1911 revolution- Lessened threat of Jap influence in China - rise of Jap power already seen as a serious threat to Am. interests in Pacific 2. Interventionist policies in Mexico-Mexican Revolution 1910-11 -> violence + instability threatened Am. business interests especially oil - 1914 -> Am. marines occupied port of Vera Cruz to 'restore order' - criticised by anti-imperialists for intervening- 1916 -> large military force under General Pershing to pursue guerilla leader Pancho Villa - spent many months chasing Pancho Villa without success until pulled out in 1917 - Caused tension between Mexico and America -> revolutionists felt Am. intervention was disrespectful 3. Sustain peace by proclaiming neutrality at the outbreak of WW1 - highlighted anti-imperial ideas to Am. public - 'impartial in thoughts and actions' - allowed USA to be peacemaker representing higher moral values - showcased progressivism by anti-colonial ideas reflecting the origins of USA in a revolution against British colonial rule - increase Am. trade -> provided America with a 'golden' opportunity to double trade 4. America joined war 1917-Even though it was against his personal ethics and morals Wilson still decided to take America into WW1- failure to keep his policies of peace -> angered pacifist organisations in America - unable to keep electoral promise 1916 - failed attempts led to the fear of German intervention in Mexico. This prompted America’s entry into WW1 -> Zimmerman telegram 1916 - USA entry promoted violence not peace- Around 170k US soldiers died during WW1 5. Implemented 14 points into Treaty of Versailles- Wilson strengthened sense of idealism and moral purpose at Paris peace conference- 14 points = expression of 'Wilsonian idealism' - based on self-determination -> allowed peoples and smaller nations to decide their own destinies outside control of old empires- League of Nations established to maintain world peace- The Saar, Danzig and Memel put under the control of the League and people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.6. Senate repealed Treaty + Am. didn't join L.O.N - Despite Wilsons efforts, Wilson achieved very little of what he wanted- Senate repealed the Treaty of Versailles - America did not join the League of Nations- Neither GB nor Fr ready to take leadership, evident that League of Nations was bound to fail -> organisation set up by Wilson yet Wilson could not give support through Am. - Majority of public did not support collective security as it may bring America into unnecessary wars

4

How important was big business in the growth of the US economy in the years 1890 to 1919

1. Free market capitalisation- BB wielded massive political influence especially in Rep party eg. 1986 election Mckinley 3.5 billion new electioneering techniques Mark Hanna- mutual dependency of government and BB- led to minimal gov intervention in the economy- set up the background to the boom- high tariffs to protect domestic markets eg. 1890 Mckinley Tariff2. Dynamic Society - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- These wealthy industrial 'barons' set the attitude in America that with hard work anything was possible - BB's American dream set the work attitude which saw the growth of the American economy 3. Trusts- result of mergers and takeovers of smaller companies to form giant corporations - large scale combinations of independent + competing firms controlled by a board of trustees- By 1904, the largest 4% of US companies produced 57% of the total industry of USA - cut the cost of manufacture - promote better coordination + organisation - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated4. America was a vast land, rich in natural resources - Oil from Texas, Coal from Kentucky and Iron from Chicago-did not have to import vast amounts of resources for the basic needs such as transportation and factories. - New technologies allowed America to more easily access its natural resources-This advantage was why USA was exporting such goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East, increasing trade- More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product. 5. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism 6. WW1 - When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive U.S. federal spending which shifted national production from civilian to war goods.- mobilisation of wartime economy increased efficiencies and stimulated manufacturing + agriculture- although wartime boom in agricultural production fell away, stimulus to industry carried on into 1920's -> factories working at full capacity

5

How successful was Woodrow Wilson in achieving his aims in foreign policy in the years 1912 to 1920?

1. Anti-Imperial ideas in far east- Wilson turned away from DD in China- re-instated Open Door Policy with much support- gave diplomatic recognition to new regime in China that gained power after 1911 revolution- Lessened threat of Jap influence in China - rise of Jap power already seen as a serious threat to Am. interests in Pacific 2. Interventionist policies in Mexico-Mexican Revolution 1910-11 -> violence + instability threatened Am. business interests especially oil - 1914 -> Am. marines occupied port of Vera Cruz to 'restore order' - criticised by anti-imperialists for intervening- 1916 -> large military force under General Pershing to pursue guerilla leader Pancho Villa - spent many months chasing Pancho Villa without success until pulled out in 1917 - Caused tension between Mexico and America -> revolutionists felt Am. intervention was disrespectful 3. Sustain peace by proclaiming neutrality at the outbreak of WW1 - highlighted anti-imperial ideas to Am. public - 'impartial in thoughts and actions' - allowed USA to be peacemaker representing higher moral values - showcased progressivism by anti-colonial ideas reflecting the origins of USA in a revolution against British colonial rule - increase Am. trade -> provided America with a 'golden' opportunity to double trade 4. America joined war 1917-Even though it was against his personal ethics and morals Wilson still decided to take America into WW1- failure to keep his policies of peace -> angered pacifist organisations in America - unable to keep electoral promise 1916 - failed attempts led to the fear of German intervention in Mexico. This prompted America’s entry into WW1 -> Zimmerman telegram 1916 - USA entry promoted violence not peace- 109000 Americans dies in the conflict. 5. Implemented 14 points into Treaty of Versailles- Wilson strengthened sense of idealism and moral purpose at Paris peace conference- 14 points = expression of 'Wilsonian idealism' - based on self-determination -> allowed peoples and smaller nations to decide their own destinies outside control of old empires- League of Nations established to maintain world peace- The Saar, Danzig and Memel put under the control of the League and people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.6. Senate repealed Treaty + Am. didn't join L.O.N - Despite Wilsons efforts, Wilson achieved very little of what he wanted- Senate repealed the Treaty of Versailles - America did not join the League of Nations- Neither GB nor Fr ready to take leadership, evident that League of Nations was bound to fail -> organisation set up by Wilson yet Wilson could not give support through Am. - Majority of public did not support collective security as it may bring America into unnecessary wars

6

How important was big business in the growth of the US economy in the years 1890 to 1919

1. Free market capitalisation- BB wielded massive political influence especially in Rep party eg. 1986 election Mckinley 3.5 billion new electioneering techniques Mark Hanna- mutual dependency of government and BB- led to minimal gov intervention in the economy- set up the background to the boom- high tariffs to protect domestic markets eg. 1890 Mckinley Tariff2. Dynamic Society - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- These wealthy industrial 'barons' set the attitude in America that with hard work anything was possible - BB's American dream set the work attitude which saw the growth of the American economy 3. Trusts- result of mergers and takeovers of smaller companies to form giant corporations - large scale combinations of independent + competing firms controlled by a board of trustees- By 1904, the largest 4% of US companies produced 57% of the total industry of USA - cut the cost of manufacture - promote better coordination + organisation - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated4. America was a vast land, rich in natural resources - Oil from Texas, Coal from Kentucky and Iron from Chicago-did not have to import vast amounts of resources for the basic needs such as transportation and factories. - New technologies allowed America to more easily access its natural resources-This advantage was why USA was exporting such goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East, increasing trade- More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product. 5. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism 6. WW1 - When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive U.S. federal spending which shifted national production from civilian to war goods.- mobilisation of wartime economy increased efficiencies and stimulated manufacturing + agriculture- although wartime boom in agricultural production fell away, stimulus to industry carried on into 1920's -> factories working at full capacity

7

How far was the foreign policy of the USA isolationist in the years 1900 to 1920?

1. TR - rapid growth of Am econ proved US needed control new markets overseas-As President, TR pursued an expansionist foreign policy towards Latin America - Platt Amendment 1902 -> confirmed US influence over Cuba- 1904 ‘Roosevelt Corollary’ to MD implied USA could interfere where American interests involved - 1906 Panama Canal embodied American imperialism.- forced Colombia to accept the existence of a new country- determination to have USA recognised as a world power - 1905-> leading role in international response to Moroccan crisis2. Dollar Diplomacy-economic form of imperialism -1912 used American bankers to provide loans to the new government of Nicaragua to support America’s mining interests. - DD used in the Far East in 1911 -> American financiers led by J.P. Morgan to join a European consortium that was backing railroad projects in China. - American bankers attempted to buy the South Manchurian railway in an attempt to block Russian and Japanese influence in China. - shows impact DD had on development of US imperialism - 3. Wilson and WW1 - Interventionist policies during Mexican Revolution 1910-11 -> 1914 -> Am. marines occupied port of Vera Cruz to 'restore order' - 1916 -> large military force under General Pershing to pursue guerilla leader Pancho Villa - Zimmerman telegram + unrestricted submarine warfare -> Am declaration of war April 1917 - An American Expeditionary force under ‘Black Jack’ Pershing was sent into Europe in June 1917. - By Jan 1918, 250000 troops arriving each month - 109000 Americans dies in the conflict. -The war officially ended with the armistice on 11 November 1918.4. League of Nations- established in Wilson's 14 points- Senate did not rejected the t.o.v. - Sense that America was not involved.- USA had only joined in 1917 – only 109000 casualties compared to total of 21 million.- Wilson didn’t understand the hatred of Germany in Europe - collective security posed a threat to Am. may cause Am. involvement in unnecessary wars- growing isolationism in Am. 5. Domestic Priorities- Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20.- Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams were primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings - socialists and other radicals -> targets of the Red Scare -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, the govhad to make sure that this same democracy was shown to the public of America- postwar reconstruction at home. - Am public wanted a change in government and isolationism as their foreign policy in order to ease the disrupt Wilson and the first world war had caused.6. Am public supported Harding's return to Normalcy- WW1 reduced the global influence of Europe +challenged Europe’s international leadership.- Eu allies owed Am11 billion -> transformed America from a net debtor to a net creditor. - NYC replaced London as the world's financial centre - Am no longer dependant on Eu - A return to domestic affairs which basically meant a return to BB within America

8

How important was Theodore Roosevelt in the development of Progressivism in the years 1900 to 1920?

1. Anti-trust- became known as the 'trust buster' - By 1904, the largest 4% of US companies produced 57% of the total industry of USA - Freed Am. economy of industrial 'barrens' in order to provide opportunities to smaller businesses -Sherman Act 1890 - enabled gov departments and private individuals to use the court system to break up any organisation or contract alleged to be in restraint of trade- dissolved J.P. Morgan's railroad holding company 'Northern Securities'3. Improved Working conditions and health - 1902: successfully arbitrated in the anthracite coal strike -TR intervened in strike on side of miners resulting in 10% pay increase + 9 hour day- Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act -> stricter regulation of railroads + extended powers of ICC -> regulate interstate trade- recognised that quantity over quality approach was leading to poorer health - Pure Food and Drug Act -> regulate standards of products- Meat Inspection Act -> regulate standards in meat trade3. Conservation - Ahead of his time: America still seemed inexhaustible in land and beauty- ensured that industrialisation did not cause American resources to be drained - 1891 Forest Reserve Act -> protect 150 mill acres form BB- Newlands Act -> power to allow land reclamation + dam building to help irrigation in West- used exec. order -> Pelican Island as 1st national wildlife reserve prevent birds being hunted for feathers4. Roosevelt didn't do enough in terms of Anti-trust legistlation - Under Taft -> 90 anti-trust suits in 4 years compared to 44 under TR in 8 years - Taft's prosecution included US Steel- Mann-Elkins Act further extended scope of ICC - Wilson -> Underwood-Simmons Tariff act cut duties + publicly denounced corporate lobbysists- Clayton Anti-Trust Act -> directly combatted monopolies : individuals responsible if companies broke law5. Wilson established a means of protection for children- 1912 -> Federal Children's Bureau established- "baby-saving" campaigns throughout the country - endorsed activities such as prenatal care- proclaimed a "Children's Year" beginning April 6, 1918- publication of the nation's first age, height, and weight standards- 1916, Keating-Owen Act, which discouraged child labor. - clamped down on child abuse 6. Under Wilson the 19th Amendment was established- 1919 -> prohibits the denial of suffrage because of sex - Female suffrage had been at the heart of progressivism since the beginning of the movement after the CW - Since 1890 the National Women's Suffrage Association had gained significant membership, many of which were progressive- Both TR and his wife had been strong advocates for female suffrage - under TR nothing had been done to provide women with equal rights

9

How far were Presidents responsible for the development of the US economy in the years 1890 to 1919?

1. Free market capitalisation- mutual dependency of government and BB especially in Rep party eg. 1986 election Mckinley 3.5 billion new electioneering techniques Mark Hanna- led to minimal gov intervention in the economy- set up the background to the boom- high tariffs to protect domestic markets eg. 1890 Mckinley Tariff2. Increased Imperialism helped to secure free trade - SPAM -> 1890 Cuban exports to United States valued $54 million-1899 Open Door Policy - more popular idea b/c provided foreign markets for domestic surplus-nations which were ‘carving up’ China were creating discriminative trade practices -Hay also proposed that each power should do away with economic advantages. -allowed Chinese Tariffs to apply universally + tariffs to be collected by Chinese themselves 3. WW1 - When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive U.S. federal spending which shifted national production from civilian to war goods.- mobilisation of wartime economy increased efficiencies and stimulated manufacturing + agriculture- although wartime boom in agricultural production fell away, stimulus to industry carried on into 1920's -> factories working at full capacity 4. America was a vast land, rich in natural resources - Oil from Texas, Coal from Kentucky and Iron from Chicago-did not have to import vast amounts of resources for the basic needs such as transportation and factories. - New technologies allowed America to more easily access its natural resources-This advantage was why USA was exporting such goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East, increasing trade- More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product.5. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism 6. Rise of BB - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- large scale combinations of independent + competing firms controlled by a board of trustees- cut the cost of manufacture - promote better coordination + organisation - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated

10

How far was the growth of the American economy in the years 1890 to 1914 due to the rise of big business?

1. Free market capitalisation- BB wielded massive political influence especially in Rep party eg. 1986 election Mckinley 3.5 billion new electioneering techniques Mark Hanna- mutual dependency of government and BB- led to minimal gov intervention in the economy- set up the background to the boom- high tariffs to protect domestic markets eg. 1890 Mckinley Tariff2. Dynamic Society - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- These wealthy industrial 'barons' set the attitude in America that with hard work anything was possible - BB's American dream set the work attitude which saw the growth of the American economy 3. Trusts- result of mergers and takeovers of smaller companies to form giant corporations - large scale combinations of independent + competing firms controlled by a board of trustees- By 1904, the largest 4% of US companies produced 57% of the total industry of USA - cut the cost of manufacture - promote better coordination + organisation - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated4. America was a vast land, rich in natural resources - Oil from Texas, Coal from Kentucky and Iron from Chicago-did not have to import vast amounts of resources for the basic needs such as transportation and factories. - New technologies allowed America to more easily access its natural resources-This advantage was why USA was exporting such goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East, increasing trade- More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product.5. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism 6. Increased Imperialism helped to secure free trade - SPAM -> 1890 Cuban exports to United States valued $54 million-1899 Open Door Policy - more popular idea b/c provided foreign markets for domestic surplus-nations which were ‘carving up’ China were creating discriminative trade practices -Hay also proposed that each power should do away with economic advantages. -allowed Chinese Tariffs to apply universally + tariffs to be collected by Chinese themselves

11

How far was the foreign policy of the USA isolationist in the years 1900 to 1920?

1. TR - rapid growth of Am econ proved US needed control new markets overseas-As President, TR pursued an expansionist foreign policy towards Latin America - Platt Amendment 1902 -> confirmed US influence over Cuba- 1904 ‘Roosevelt Corollary’ to MD implied USA could interfere where American interests involved - 1906 Panama Canal embodied American imperialism.- forced Colombia to accept the existence of a new country- determination to have USA recognised as a world power - 1905-> leading role in international response to Moroccan crisis2. Dollar Diplomacy-economic form of imperialism -1912 used American bankers to provide loans to the new government of Nicaragua to support America’s mining interests. - DD used in the Far East in 1911 -> American financiers led by J.P. Morgan to join a European consortium that was backing railroad projects in China. - American bankers attempted to buy the South Manchurian railway in an attempt to block Russian and Japanese influence in China. - shows impact DD had on development of US imperialism - 3. Wilson and WW1 - Interventionist policies during Mexican Revolution 1910-11 -> 1914 -> Am. marines occupied port of Vera Cruz to 'restore order' - 1916 -> large military force under General Pershing to pursue guerilla leader Pancho Villa - Zimmerman telegram + unrestricted submarine warfare -> Am declaration of war April 1917 - An American Expeditionary force under ‘Black Jack’ Pershing was sent into Europe in June 1917. - By Jan 1918, 250000 troops arriving each month - 109000 Americans dies in the conflict. -The war officially ended with the armistice on 11 November 1918.4. League of Nations- established in Wilson's 14 points- Senate did not rejected the t.o.v. - Sense that America was not involved.- USA had only joined in 1917 – only 109000 casualties compared to total of 21 million.- Wilson didn’t understand the hatred of Germany in Europe - collective security posed a threat to Am. may cause Am. involvement in unnecessary wars- growing isolationism in Am. 5. Domestic Priorities- Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20.- Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams were primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings - socialists and other radicals -> targets of the Red Scare -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, the govhad to make sure that this same democracy was shown to the public of America- postwar reconstruction at home. - Am public wanted a change in government and isolationism as their foreign policy in order to ease the disrupt Wilson and the first world war had caused.6. Am public supported Harding's return to Normalcy- WW1 reduced the global influence of Europe +challenged Europe’s international leadership.- Eu allies owed Am11 billion -> transformed America from a net debtor to a net creditor. - NYC replaced London as the world's financial centre - Am no longer dependant on Eu - A return to domestic affairs which basically meant a return to BB within America

12

How far were Presidents responsible for the development of the US economy in the years 1890 to 1919?

1. Free market capitalisation- mutual dependency of government and BB especially in Rep party eg. 1986 election Mckinley 3.5 billion new electioneering techniques Mark Hanna- led to minimal gov intervention in the economy- set up the background to the boom- high tariffs to protect domestic markets eg. 1890 Mckinley Tariff2. Increased Imperialism helped to secure free trade - SPAM -> 1890 Cuban exports to United States valued $54 million-1899 Open Door Policy - more popular idea b/c provided foreign markets for domestic surplus-nations which were ‘carving up’ China were creating discriminative trade practices -Hay also proposed that each power should do away with economic advantages. -allowed Chinese Tariffs to apply universally + tariffs to be collected by Chinese themselves 3. WW1 - When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Entry into the war in 1917 unleashed massive U.S. federal spending which shifted national production from civilian to war goods.- mobilisation of wartime economy increased efficiencies and stimulated manufacturing + agriculture- although wartime boom in agricultural production fell away, stimulus to industry carried on into 1920's -> factories working at full capacity 4. America was a vast land, rich in natural resources - Oil from Texas, Coal from Kentucky and Iron from Chicago-did not have to import vast amounts of resources for the basic needs such as transportation and factories. - New technologies allowed America to more easily access its natural resources-This advantage was why USA was exporting such goods to Europe, Latin America and the Far East, increasing trade- More and more industries are developing ways of more efficient and productive ways of producing their product.5. Immigration- huge increases in manpower + markets came with mass immigration so labour force was always growing + construction industry always booming- became vital to certain industries such as farming, construction and the service sector.- Greater economical output- corruption b/c easy exploitation low wage- lower wages meant lower production cost -> lower prices increased consumerism 6. Rise of BB - vertical integration to form business enterprises -> all processes were joined together to increase efficiency - Financial risk -> large-scale investments to build new factories, create complex technologies - development of business elites eg. J.P. Morgan -> made his fortune reorganised American railroad companies- large scale combinations of independent + competing firms controlled by a board of trustees- cut the cost of manufacture - promote better coordination + organisation - limit competition + create monopolies = vast amount of money accumulated

13

How progressive were Presidents Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson?

1. Anti-trust- Freed Am. economy of industrial 'barrens' in order to provide opportunities to smaller businesses -Sherman Act 1890 - dissolved J.P. Morgan's railroad holding company 'Northern Securities'- Under Taft -> 90 anti-trust suits in 4 years- Taft's prosecution included US Steel- Wilson -> Underwood-Simmons Tariff act cut duties + publicly denounced corporate lobbyists- Clayton Anti-Trust Act -> directly combatted monopolies : individuals responsible if companies broke law2. Despite Anti-trust legislation, Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson were unable to reduce the power of BB and its leaders- Sherman Act 1890 -> Unable to slow the merger movement in business- monopolies still strong 3. Conservation - ensured that industrialisation did not cause American resources to be drained - 1891 Forest Reserve Act -> protect 150 mill acres form BB- Newlands Act -> power to allow land reclamation + dam building to help irrigation in West- used exec. order -> Pelican Island as 1st national wildlife reserve prevent birds being hunted for feathers- Taft -> General Withdrawal Act withdrew 8.5 million acres of land in Alaska to stop private companies purchasing4. Women and Children - Taft 1912 -> Federal Children's Bureau established- "baby-saving" campaigns throughout the country - endorsed activities such as prenatal care- 1916, Keating-Owen Act, which discouraged child labor. - clamped down on child abuse- 1919 -> 19th amendment prohibits the denial of suffrage because of sex 5. Entry into WW1 - Many progressives believed that entry into WW1 was based on greedy, economic motivations.- When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. -44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war and later as the United States itself joined the battle.- Rapid readjustment and demobilisation produced social unrest in the United States in 1919–20.6. Neither of the 3 presidents improved conditions for African Americans - civil rights not established - Regardless of wartime patriotism, African Ams were primary victims of urban race riots and rural lynchings -After fighting a war in Europe for democracy, same democracy not shown in Am-> Wilson partly responsible for this post-war impact-negative attitudes toward black people, new immigrants, and labor strikes, and his international focus, resulted in a neglect of postwar reconstruction at home.

14

How far was the media responsible for the US entry into WW1?

1. The German submarine campaign February 1915- G torpedo ships caused American deaths- Sinking of the Lusitania caused 128 US deaths-reported by the press -> encouraged anti-German feeling and pro-war feeling- Resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare February 1916 -The Sussex’ March 1916 and caused 80 casualties and the ‘Laconia’ which was sunk on 27th February 1917 -Angered American people – memory of Lusitania. -> wasn't necessarily the action which drew US into war but the reaction it caused within public2. Public Opinion- By 1915, tales of atrocities in Belgium along with the sinking of the British passenger liner Lusitania -> turn the tide of public opinion against Germany and her allies-anti-German sentiment in US grew -many Americans began advocating strongly for military preparedness, in expectation that the country would eventually join the conflict.- 1914 - 1916, print, sound, film, lectures, and performance to publicise, and popularise war3. Preponderance towards Allies/hatred of Germany.- Very little trade with Germany because of blockade- Still sympathy for Britain because of cultural ties- Am. breaks off diplomatic relations with G in Feb -> war declared April -Trade with France and Britain tripled. With G only 10% of what it was before the war in 1916.3. Economic factors -Unrestricted submarine warfare disrupted American trade routes – industrialists supported war felt access to the seas was affected- US bankers lent $2.5 billion to Allies and only $27million to Germany by comparison- could not afford to let allies lose - When war began, U.S. econ in recession- a 32-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1917, as Europeans began purchasing U.S. goods for the war later - evident that this boom would only increase if US itself joined the battle.4. Zimmermann telegram- Because Britain revealed it, Americans trusted Britain.Anger towards Germany – complete violation of America’s sphere of influence.- Germany offered to support Mexico in regaining the states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona if there was a successful alliance between Germany and Mexico against USA- seen as a personal attack. 6. Collapse of Russia in February 1917- morally against autocracy -> not compatible with Russia so didn't join before 1917-Allies now ‘fighting for democracy’ -Contributed to the feeling the Allies were going to lose. America preferred to fight with Allies now, than on its own later.-Fight for democracy appealed greatly to idealists like Wilson.