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1

How successful was FDR in winning support for his New Deal policies?

1. Fireside chats- first 100 days bank holiday + emergency banking legislation - Loss of confidence in banks -> withdrawal + foreclosure- 90% of American households owned a radio. - March 1933, delivered informal address on banking crisis-When banks opened again, public confidence restored- potential of mass media to communicate directly and intimately with the public- 30 total radio addresses from March 1933 to June 1944. 2. Farmers + South- ND brought relief to many farmers in rural areas through establishing credit and loans.-Under ND, the FCA administered several acts which provided loans to farmers, aiding recovery. The Emergency Farm Mortgage Act of April 1933 allotted $200 million for refinancing mortgages to help farmers facing foreclosure. - 1933 AAA worked effectively to deal with the crisis of overproduction -By 1935, total farm income rose by 2.4 bill - ND measures farther than any previous president had gone to address agricultural grievances that dated back to the nineteenth century.3. Labour + TU- 1920's TU ignored -> 'yellow dog' contracts- limited strike action -> SC used anti-trust acts against TU- ND supported unionisation and collective bargaining with the 1935 National Labor Relations Act, popularly known as the Wagner Act- favourable treatment of labor, unions gained membership, power, and political influence, lending their support for ND4. Political Opposition from RW Cons. Reps- Gov. intervention went too far -> socialist + un-am. - believed it damaged BB- ND policies allowed greater union organisation + right to collective bargaining -> opposed BB control over trade- Liberty League -> Rep politicians + industrialists -> main aim to uphold Constitution against ND policies b/c believed they undermined it5. Supreme Court -> believed it cost US its democracy- US gov too much control over industry- National Industrial Recovery Act -> Schechter Poultry Corporation v US May 1935 - Supreme Court ruled NIRA unconstitutional b/c couldn't regulate intrastate trade - AAA -> US v Butler Jan 1936- unconstitutional -> tax couldn't be used to transfer wealth directly from person to person6. Political Opposition from LW - Socialists + communists wanted end to capitalist economic system- nationalisation of industry was necessary to bring Am. out of TGD- Coughlin -> inflationary measures to be implemeted - greater use of silver coinage - Huey P. Long -> 'Share our Wealth' campaign 1934 gained popular support amongst WC-> $5k homestead allowance + min wage $2.5k a year

2

How important was American public opinion as a reason for the USA entering World War Two?

1. Public Opinion - June 1940, Am opinion split two-to-one in favour of staying out of the war even if it meant Britain losing- By Nov 1940 -> majority in favour of aiding Britain even at the risk of war. -By summer 1941, 1/2 of Ams rejected any negotiation with Germany with 38% in support. - suggests much of the initial lack of support for risking war was based on the view that the Allies could win without Am help. - when Fr fell June 1940, public realised that the only thing standing in the way of German world domination was Britain. 2. Pearl Harbour- Dec 7,1941, Jap "surprise attack.”-> Am. not prepared - 18 U.S. ships sunk/damaged, 188 U.S. aircraft destroyed, + 2,403 U.S. neutral military personnel + civilians killed.- Day after -> FDR -> joint session Congress-> late delivery of note from Jap gov breaking off relations with the U.S.-Congress isolationists before -> declared war on the Empire of Japan with only one dissenting vote. -FDR signed the declaration of war later the same day. Link: Congress support for war arguably to represent Am. public 3. Pearl Harbour + Public Opinion - Pearl Harbour = total shift in Am attitudes towards war- Dec 7, 1941, millions of Am's gathered around radios for a speech made by Roosevelt - called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy”. -> served as a rallying point that brought the nation together to face the Axis threat. - As a result of Pearl Harbour, the whole society was likeminded in regards to entering the war. -16 mill men and women waited in line to join the war effort.Link: Both Congress and the public were ushered into war by FDR 4. Roosevelt never intended to maintain neutrality after war had broken out.- Lend-Lease Dec 1940, provided GB with the supplies it needed to fight G and didn’t request for money to be paid immediately. -> showed Roosevelt’s support. - Atlantic Charter -> FDR made secret commitments to Churchill + Gb gov to become involved in war against G- only way to fulfil secret commitments to Churchill by provoking Germany or Japan to attack. - Roosevelt’s announcement of a ‘shoot on sight’ policy in September 1941.Link: FDR knew that only war would bring Am. out of TGD 5. Economy - Despite ND measures, prod. levels 1940 still not as high as before 1914 - 1938 recession proved this -> as soon as federal spending stopped unemployment jumped from 14.3% in 1937 to 19.0% in 1938- FDR knew that if econ. on war footing -> war time prod. would bring self-dependency on Am. econ - ND worked as emergency measures but would cause great opposition in LT Link: FDR could not act without Public approval6. Fireside Chats - Without highlighting WW2 as econ. gain FDR able to gain support for war discretely - Throughout presidency FDR used fireside chats to gain popularity for his beliefs and policies-> more personal, casual relationship with the people. - easier for FDR to persuade Am citizens. - promised that Am. would not enter foreign war-> Once war took place on Am. shores, fireside chats convinced millions that Am. must join WW2

3

How far was American society changed by the impact of the Second World War?

1. WC-Unemployment fell from 9.5 million in 1938 to 670,000 in 1944. -> Wages for these jobs doubled with overtime readily available. - MC grew to much larger % of the pop. so consumerism + pop. of leisure time activities eg. films or concerts. - Servicemen's Readjustment Act 1944 allowed huge no's of military personal to buy homes, and attend university.-> greatly increased the no. of well-educated Ams resulting in a wider job market for inventions.2. Those in business of manufacturing greatly benefitted - Within 4 yrs -> US produced almost 300k airplanes, 85k warships + nearly 50 million tons of artillery ammunition. - Military contracts were given to large corporations such as US steel. -> allowed many factories to greatly build up their capacity for the war, and the increased capacity was used to advantage after the war.-Many manufacturers switched from leisure time products eg. cars -> could not be afforded during TGD to war time products such as tanks. -> led to a need for automobiles, appliances, and many other items. - conversion back allowed huge amounts of sales of these items. This lasted long enough to establish many businesses solidly.3. Women-The military organised women into auxiliary units with special uniforms, their own officers, and, astonishingly, equal pay. - By 1945, more than 250k women joined armed services - substituted for men on the home front.-> For the first time in history, married working women outnumbered single working women as 6.3 million women entered the work force during the war. - war challenged the conventional image of female behaviour -> "Rosie the Riveter" symbol of women who abandoned traditional female occupations to work in defence industries. 4. Women were still considered to be 'secondary workers'. -> Women's wages were not considered central to families’ income, instead it was thought that women's wages were for ‘extras’ such as holidays or new consumer durables. -Mothers of young children were once again discouraged from working -> most of the state funded nurseries set up during the WWII were closed by the post-war government. - Welfare payments for families were based on the assumption that a man’s income supported his wife and children who were his dependants (the ‘family wage’).5. Af. Am's - Although 125k Af Ams joined war effort, during the war, extreme segregation remained. -The Marines excluded blacks, the Navy used them as servants, and the Army created separate black regiments -The Red Cross even segregated blood plasma. - As urban areas swelled with defence workers, housing and transportation shortages exacerbated racial tensions. - In 1943, a riot broke out in Detroit in a federally-sponsored housing project when whites wanted blacks barred from the new apartments named, ironically, in honour of Sojourner Truth.6. Mex. Am's - Bracero (work hands) Program in 1942, and by 1945-> need for farm workers rose dramatically after PH- In New Mexico, about 1/5 of rural Mex Am pop left for war-related jobs. -> labor unions resented competition -> discrimination against Mexicans and Mexican Americans alike.- LA, ethnic tensions erupted into violence. - June 1943, hundreds of Anglo sailors, on liberty from nearby naval bases, invaded downtown LA. - Eager to put down the Mex Am youths, attacked the zoot suiters, and riots broke out for several nights. -The local press blamed the Mexican American gangs. Conc: WW2 brought Ams out of TGD -> reducing unemployment of WC + thereby increasing need for manufacturing companies. Despite, increased war time roles to women, African Americans and Mexicans, it is evident that social stigma attached to these classes were not so easily adjusted.

4

How important was FDR to the development of the USA as a world power in the years 1933 to 1945

1. US gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power. -> removed US from the World Economic Conference in London in June 1933 because he believed that any financial agreement reached at the meeting would negatively impact commodity prices in the United States.- expanding American involvement in the world. - Nov 1933, FDR met with diplomats from the Soviet Union and agreed to establish friendly relations. -> important for American trade markets. -allowed Am businessmen buy + sell within Soviet market.2. Roosevelt used the same concept of friendly diplomatic relations to cool tensions with Latin America. - Dec 1933 -> Good Neighbour Policy- ended Roosevelt Corollary -> MD - removed Am forces stationed in various L. Am nations, returned controlling power to Cuba -granted more Panamanian autonomy in controlling the Panama Canal. -> rebuilt strained relations while opening new markets to the US. - cordial relations with new markets alleviate the economic strain of the Great Depression.3. The concept of applying the New Deal to foreign relations - cemented in 1934 when Congress passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreement. -> legislation established a quid pro quo policy.- FDR allowed to drastically lower tariffs within US as long as the overseas trade partners did the same. - developing relations and building trade markets. 4. WW2 - by the late 1930s, the United States faced a growing challenge to its global military and political dominance from the expanding German and Japanese empires.- G + Jap loss of WW2 greatly decreased power -Am soil physically untouched by war besides PH -> diff if Am had invaded Japan. -Am received benefits of war econ without cost of recovery unlike most of Europe or Japan. -treaty of San Francisco, 1952, formally ended Jap's as imperial power, forcing Jap compensation to Allied civilians + pow who had suffered under Jap war crimes. -This treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights -> Am. goals-Although unjustified due to Jap civilian death, a.bombs led to fear of defying Am gov, allowing Am to strip other nations of their empire whilst expanding their own econ. e5. The use of the atomic bombs in 1945 undoubtedly, saved American lives and money as it prevented a full scale invasion of Japan. - If the a bombs not used Am full invasion of Jap’s home islands, war would have been elongated. -A ground invasion would have resulted in nearly immeasurable more casualties. -A joint war plans committee ->46k Ams would die in an invasion of Kyushu and later Honshu. -175k Am casualties not out of the question. -Alongside an increase in casualties which would lower Am civilian morale and consumerism, the war cost Am $341 billion in 1945. -by dropping the a. bombs Am able to remain out of debt. 6. This allowed America to have a higher tier of warfare above Russia, essentially causing America to become the sole super power in 1945. - FDR ensured Manhattan project 1942 kept a secret. -surprise of a bombs allowed Am an advantage over USSR ->Stalin vulnerable- Despite great alliance WW2, once common enemy removed, USSR once again enemy to capitalism and democracy. -a bombs allowed Am to broker peace treaty towards Am’s favour with USSR in 1947. - Russia strengthened from the war -> Am able to limit USSR expansion -> remain the sole world power in the

5

How important were the measures of the New Deal in reducing unemployment in the USA in the years 1933 to 1941?

Intro : Unemployment went down every year of the New Deal except 1938 -> Unemployment decreased by 6.7 million 1933-7 1. Unskilled workers - Between July 1933 + March 1939 the PWA funded + administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects- provided job ops for unemployed unskilled workers- WPA employed millions of unemployed people mainly unskilled workers to carry out public works projects - At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women2. Youth -> National Youth Administration 1935-39 - focused on providing work + education for Ams 16-25- By 1938, it served 327,000 high school and college youth -> paid from $6 to $40 a month for "work study" projects at their schools.- 155,000 boys and girls from relief families paid $10 to $25 a month for part-time work included job training.-> included young women- NYA operated several programs for out of school youth.3. Agriculture- ND AAA 1933 -> paid farmers to destroy their crops and livestock . - A total of 10.5 million acres of cotton fields were ploughed under, and the price of cotton accordingly rose from 6.5 cent per pound in 1932 to 10 cents in 1933. -self-financing through a tax placed on companies that processed food. -By 1935, the total farm income has rose by 2.4 billion dollars. - The act also appeased farmers with 95% of tobacco growers signing up for the AAA. - The AAA worked effectively to deal with the crisis of overproduction and unemployment from bankruptcy 4. Supreme Court -> believed it cost US its democracy- US gov too much control over industry- National Industrial Recovery Act -> Schechter Poultry Corporation v US May 1935 - Supreme Court ruled NIRA unconstitutional b/c couldn't regulate intrastate trade - AAA -> US v Butler Jan 1936- unconstitutional -> tax couldn't be used to transfer wealth directly from person to person-> made ND policies redundant 5. 1938 Recession - Unemployment increased by 2.2 million - Belief that the ‘emergency’ of the depression had passed led to widespread political disapproval of large federal expenditure.-FDR responded by cutting the federal budget. -ND was propping up the economy.- Unemployment remained high, but it was slightly lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. -When finance towards bills such as the AAA were cut, the Am econ took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. 6. African Americans- white men got more jobs than ethnic groups so unemployment was still very severe for Af Am's - Although professing a nondiscriminatory policy, the CCC failed to give a fair share of work to blacks, especially in the South where local selection agents held sway. - black participation only 10% by 1936.- The Farm Service Agency was prominent in its efforts to include African-Americans on its committees; however, public pressure forced the agency to release all of its African-American appointees.

6

How important was the New Deal to the economic recovery of the USA in the years 1933 to 1941?

1. Banking Crisis- Loss of confidence in banks -> withdrawal + foreclosure- 3k banks failed in 1932 alone- first 100 days national bank holiday + emergency banking act -> stabilise banking system - unlimited amounts of currency to reopened banks, created 100% deposit insurance. - when banks reopened for business on March 13, 1933, - depositors stood in line to return their stashed cash to neighbourhood banks. -Within two weeks, Americans had redeposited more than half of the currency that they had squirreled away before the bank suspension.2. UnemploymentUnemployment went down every year of the New Deal except 1938- Unemployment decreased by 6.7 million 1933-7 - Between July 1933 + March 1939 the PWA funded + administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects- provided job ops for unemployed unskilled workers- WPA employed millions of unemployed people to carry out public works projects - employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects3. Agriculture- ND AAA 1933 -> paid farmers to destroy their crops and livestock . - A total of 10.5 million acres of cotton fields were ploughed under, and the price of cotton accordingly rose from 6.5 cent per pound in 1932 to 10 cents in 1933. -self-financing through a tax placed on companies that processed food. -By 1935, the total farm income has rose by 2.4 billion dollars. - The act also appeased farmers with 95% of tobacco growers signing up for the AAA. - The AAA worked effectively to deal with the crisis of overproduction and unemployment from bankruptcy 5. 1938 Recession - Belief that the ‘emergency’ of the depression had passed led to widespread political disapproval of large federal expenditure.-FDR responded by cutting the federal budget. -ND was propping up the economy.- Unemployment remained high, but it was slightly lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. -When finance towards bills such as the AAA were cut, the Am econ took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. 6. ND did not achieve real recovery – it was the effects of gearing up for war that galvanised the economy. - Unemployment stayed high until the war econ got going- Lend-Lease -> allowed Am. to benefit from war econ. -> allowed many factories to greatly build up their capacity for the war

7

How successful were US government policies in promoting economic recovery in the years 1936 to 1941?

1. Unemployment went down every year of the New Deal except 1938- Unemployment decreased by 6.7 million 1933-7 - Between July 1933 + March 1939 the PWA funded + administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects- provided job ops for unemployed unskilled workers- WPA employed millions of unemployed people to carry out public works projects - employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects2. 2nd AAA 1938 - price support mandatory for corn, cotton, and wheat to help maintain a sufficient supply in low production periods along with marketing quotas to keep supply in line with market demand. - established permissive supports for various agricultural goods such as butter, grain and tobacco 1938-40 period. -> allowed agriculture technology to improve and expand in south to more modern farming methods, as well as diversifying land. -> Many acres normally devoted to cotton use to grow cattle or used more efficiently -> increase product per acre.3 By 1941 there was a lot more optimism and business confidence4. the New Deal did not achieve real recovery – it was the effects of gearing up for war that galvanised the economy. - Unemployment stayed high until the war economy got going -> 8 million in 1940 - 3 Neutrality Acts passed by gov. put limitations on foreign trade with 'belligerent' nations - BB found loop holes in the 2nd Neutrality Act 1936 which allowed companies such as Texaco, Standard Oil, Ford and General Motors to sell items not covered on credit to head of Nationalists in Spanish Civil War 5. Many ND policies were dropped after a short time because they were ineffective or had short-lived benefits- National Industrial Recovery Act -> Schechter Poultry Corporation v US May 1935 - Supreme Court ruled NIRA unconstitutional b/c couldn't regulate intrastate trade - AAA -> US v Butler Jan 1936- unconstitutional -> tax couldn't be used to transfer wealth directly from person to person6. the ‘Roosevelt Recession’ of 1938 showed serious weaknesses in the economy- Belief that the ‘emergency’ of the depression had passed led to widespread political disapproval of large federal expenditure.-FDR responded by cutting the federal budget. -ND was propping up the economy.- Unemployment remained high, but it was slightly lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. -When finance towards bills such as the AAA were cut, the Am econ took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938.

8

How far was organised crime responsible for the failure of Prohibition?

1. Al Capone amongst many other figure heads of organised crime made prohibition into big business - operated nationwide-> provided countless job opportunities. -Thousands of people involved (hotel staff, restaurant) - Bootleg alcohol is what fuelled the work of Organised crime. - Most of the men involved young immigrants. - By late 1920's > 1 million gallons of bootleg liquor had been illegally brought into the United States (Ca, OB)- Organised crime became one of the most profitable industries in America.2. Blurred the boundaries between crime and decent society. - Prohibition introduced to improve american society -> dispose of the ‘evil’ in society by the temperance movement. - gangs and criminals used prohibition as an opportunity to corrupt society. - Huge numbers of law-abiding people continued to drink illegally. - poorer classes made do with home produced beer or moonshine; the more wealthy could go to speakeasies. -respect for the law was lessened - arrests for drunkenness and disorderly conduct increased by 41% in 19203. Corruption -Of all the laws passed in the USA, Prohibition was the most widely ignored-The amount of money these gangsters had meant that politicians could be controlled easily this led to massive corruption.- even Harding had alcohol delivered to the White House.- law enforcement officer -> $2500 a year; those they were paid to shut down $2 billion a year. -1920-1930, 10% paid to enforce fined for corruption. - Alcohol was also still available on doctors’ prescriptions; this was open to widespread abuse.4. Economic Considerations- Loss of state revenue huge- NYC received almost 75% of revenue on alcohol sales - prohibition had cost federal gov. $11 bill in lost taxation- cost more than $300 mill to enforce- Economic issues took on greater importance b/c TGD Link: Similarly, business elites also felt an economic loss from prohibition 5. Business elite- Big industrialists who had supported Prohibition now had a change of heart- Rockefeller Jr who had donated >500k to Anti-Saloon League -> called for its repeal published in NY times- stated disappointment in growth of speakeasies, increased crime + general disregard for law - Pierre du Pont of General Motors also campaigned for repeal at head of association against prohibition amendment -> both believed work ethic had decreased b/c prohibitionLink: The views of such business elites were the views of the many 6. Shift in public opinion- prohibition did not eradicate social issues - widespread disregard for law, corruption + underground drinking - growth of repeal organisations -> Women's organisation for national prohibition reform had >1.5 mill members by 1933 - 19th amendment -> politicians had to take notice

9

How important were the problems in agriculture in causing the Great Depression?

1. The declination of the agricultural economy = long term
- early 1920’s farmers overproduced surplus in cotton, corn, rice, tobacco, wheat and hogs. -value of farm produce fell from 1919-21 by 6 bill
-Farmers unable to repay loans -> debt.
-When agricultural prices and incomes fell more steeply than usual in 1930, many farmers went into bankruptcy.
-rural banks failed in alarming numbers ->harvest of 1930.
-By Nov and Dec so many rural banks had defaulted on their obligations that urban banks also began to fail.
-> wave of bank failures frightened depositors into withdrawing their savings, further deepening the crisis.

2. Bank Failure-During 1920s, average 70 banks failing/year nationally.
-After WSC, during the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed which -10 times as many-
- 9k banks failed during 30s.
-3k in 1932 alone-By 1933, depositors saw $140 bill disappear through bank failures.
-no such thing as deposit insurance. If a bank failed, you lost the money
-millions of Americans loss all their savings.
-Without money, consumerism reached an all time low which caused the US economy to decline greatly.

3. Dustbowl
- Massive dust storms forced migrant farmers to lose their business, their livelihood and their homes.
-Families migrated to California or cities to find work that often didn't exist by the time they got there.
- Many ended up living as homeless “hobos” or in shantytowns called “Hoovervilles," named after then-President Herbert Hoover.
- According to the WPA, 3/5 of all first-time rural relief cases in the Great Plains area were directly related to drought,
-> disproportionate amount of cases being farmers (68%) and especially tenant farmers (70% of the 68%).

4. Uneven incomes of the 1920's
- top 1% of workers in 1929 saw income rise by 75 % bottom 99% meanwhile only enjoyed a 9% rise in wages.
- while industrial production rose by 50% at end of the 1920s, wages did not keep pace
-> expendable income not available to purchase what was being created.
-> ‘Roaring Twenties’, not common to entire population and this gap between the wealthy and the poor
– the latter making up the vast majority of the country – was an underlying factor in why the US economy collapsed in on itself

.5. Overproduction
- Although production of radios + cars were at all time highs -> 10 million and 5.5 million in 1929
- Maj. of Am's who could afford had already purchased- Nature of products being produced
- Efficiency of production -> eg. moving assembly line -> decreased prices = loss of value of product -> Model 'T' $950 in 1914 - $290 in 1929
- decreasing number of real consumers + increased numbers of credit consumers -> 1929 80% radios + 60% of cars led to debt and bank foreclosures during TGD

6. WSC = trigger
-late Oct 1929, panic in stock market led to a loss of 4 bill
-As an attempt to prop up the stock market, on the 26th of October bankers paid out $40 billion dollars to stabilise prices.
-but brokers who had sold shares on the margin borrowed money from these banks which demanded money back.
-> mills of investors can't repay debts so sell shares.
-> Panic stricken brokers + investors sold over 16 million shares in 1 day
-slumped value of the stock market by 14 bill- By 13 Nov, 1929, over 30 bill disappeared from Am econ.

10

How important was FDR’s personality in shaping the success and failures of the New Deal?

1. Charismatic- Fireside chats -> 30 total radio addresses from March 1933 to June 1944.- first 100 days bank holiday + emergency banking legislation - Loss of confidence in banks -> withdrawal + foreclosure- 90% of American households owned a radio. - March 1933, delivered informal address on banking crisis-When banks opened again, public confidence restored- potential of mass media to communicate directly and intimately with the public 2. Confident- allowed him to achieve things that Hoover could not - Confidence allowed him to sway Congress into passing bills at a speed like never before - declared TGD a national emergency- first 100 days -> Congress followed Roosevelt's lead by passing an incredible fifteen separate bills which, together, formed the basis of the New Deal- many ideas such as Reconstruction Finance Corps 1932 derived from Hoover but successful magnitude was not achieved b/c unlike FDR Hoover didn't have the confidence to convince Congress that RFC needed more funding3. Controlling Nature- Unlike Hoover who thought the economy would naturally boom once again, FDR took matters into his own hands by creating jobs to push the Am. economy into a boom- Between July 1933 + March 1939 the PWA funded + administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects- provided job ops for unemployed unskilled workers- WPA employed millions of unemployed people mainly unskilled workers to carry out public works projects - At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women4. Left wing criticism that the first new deal did not extend far enough brought a spirit of reform into the government. -The Farmer-Labour party 1918, began to grow masses of support -by 1934 50 supporters in both houses-Radical change progressed through their programme. -max hours of work and min wages, greater investment in public works, higher taxes for the wealthy + social security. -radical senators eg. Wagner -> preparing own proposals. -climate in new Congress was for action FDR prevent this. -didn't want to surrender initiative in preparing ND leg. -important that he had power to act in his own way with his own measures before being forced to put forward ideas which he many not have agreed with -> 2nd ND5. Supreme Court - overturned -> replace overturned leg. with 2nd ND-New measures needed to be introduced to replace acts - eg. NRA, SC declared unconstitutional. -NRA managed to make significant beneficial output through public work schemes. -PWA funded with $3.3 bill with the hope that expenditure on public works would stimulate the economy. ->put hundreds of thousands of people to work, building nearly 13 thousand schools, 50 thousand miles of roads among other things. -pumped billions of dollars into the economy which is why it needed to be retained.6. Congress - Belief that the ‘emergency’ of the depression had passed led to widespread political disapproval of large federal expenditure.-FDR responded to congress disapproval of federal spending by cutting the federal budget. -ND was propping up the economy.- Unemployment remained high, but it was slightly lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. -When finance towards bills such as the AAA were cut, the Am econ took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. Conc: FDR's personality greatly contributed to the successes of the ND. However, opposition + supreme court pushed FDR to reform and create a 2nd ND. Ultimately, opposition to ND which caused the failures in the ND such as 1938 recession.

11

How far was the USA isolationist between the two world wars?

1. Decrease in popularity for interventionist approach- Life in America WW1 =Tax - Most of the funding for the war came from taxation, so the tax rates grew in size. - In 1918, the top rate of income tax was 77% compared to 7% in 1913.- 1918 Sedition Act made it illegal to criticise the USA; this was an unparalleled restriction on the freedom of the press in the country and it carried the threat of imprisonment.- gov had shown that it had the capability and authority to step in and disrupt laissez-faire, if it so pleased.L: This negative feeling towards foreign policy led much of the Am. public to disagree with the LON2. L.o.N-Senate didn’t ratify t.o.v because LON-collective security = decrease power of congress over fp-Am public did not want to have the possibility of being dragged into another unnecessary war-Rep concerns that League would commit US to an expensive organisation -reduce US ability to defend own interests H. Cabot Lodge - feared consequences of involvement in Eu’s tangled politics b/c 1919 peace settlement L: Harding won presidency by arguing against L.of N3. Harding’s return to normalcy - electoral promise made by reps during 1920 elections- return to domestic affairs -> a return to BB within Am- Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 -> increase importation rate to an all time high to protect American companies from international competition. - Increased importation rate despite the reparation debt Europe inL: Under Harding’s presidency came disarmament meetings 4. Disarmament more internationalist than isolationist- 2 factors prompted Am calls for disarmament 1920s. - 1, reducing military strength would prevent another war. - 2, US concerned over growing military power of Jap -> taken advantage of war to seize G possessions in China + western Pacific -> threat to Am interests in the region - Limiting Jap's military capabilities protect those interests. - Washington Armaments Conference (Nov 1921–Feb 1922)L: The purpose of these disarmament conferences were to establish peace internationally which was the same intent when America signed the Kellogg-Brand peace pact5. Dawes Plan 1924- To avert an int. financial crisis, Coolidge appointed a no. of Am businessmen, inc. Dawes and Young, to investigate - resulting Dawes Plan (1924) fixed G's payments over the next 5 yrs and provided for a rather large foreign loan- most of the funds coming from American banks. -plan allowed G to meet its reparations obligations with U.S. -GB and Fr to use the reparations they received from Germany to pay off their debts to US6. Roosevelt never intended to maintain neutrality after war had broken out.- Lend-Lease Dec 1940, provided GB with the supplies it needed to fight G and didn’t request for money to be paid immediately. -> showed Roosevelt’s support. - Atlantic Charter -> FDR made secret commitments to Churchill + Gb gov to become involved in war against G- only way to fulfil secret commitments to Churchill by provoking Germany or Japan to attack. - Roosevelt’s announcement of a ‘shoot on sight’ policy in September 1941.

12

How successful were opponents of the New Deal in achieving their aims in the years 1933 to 1941?

1. Political Opposition from LW - Socialists + communists wanted end to capitalist economic system- nationalisation of industry was necessary to bring Am. out of TGD- Coughlin -> inflationary measures to be implemeted - greater use of silver coinage - Huey P. Long -> 'Share our Wealth' campaign 1934 gained popular support amongst WC-> $5k homestead allowance + min wage $2.5k a year Link: Similarly FDR faced political opposition of ND from RW2. Political Opposition from RW Cons. Reps- Gov. intervention went too far -> socialist + un-am. - believed it damaged BB- ND policies allowed greater union organisation + right to collective bargaining -> opposed BB control over trade- Liberty League -> Rep politicians + industrialists -> main aim to uphold Constitution against ND policies b/c believed they undermined itLink: The majority of the Supreme Court were RW Cons. Reps3. Supreme Court -> believed it cost US its democracy- US gov too much control over industry- National Industrial Recovery Act -> Schechter Poultry Corporation v US May 1935 - Supreme Court ruled NIRA unconstitutional b/c couldn't regulate intrastate trade - AAA -> US v Butler Jan 1936- unconstitutional -> tax couldn't be used to transfer wealth directly from person to person4. Coughlin’s success was short lived. - As ND progressed many people had faith in it. - Coughlin was gradually losing supporters. - By 1941, there was little opposition to ND- nation had been united by WWII, which started for the USA on 7 December 1941. -Coughlin anti-semitic views seen as Nazi - Radio broadcasts had to be suspended due to war 5. Greatest opposition = Huey Long. - Populist Governor of Louisiana. - capping high-earners’ salary to $1 million + redistributing wealth to the poor. -> Long rallied a lot of support because of his idealistic policies and this led to more people opposing the New Deal. -1935 he was assassinated -> 'Share our Wealth' campaign ended when Long died6. FDR won the 1936 election- Democratic landslide victory-> evidently proved that public supported FDR- number of acts overturned by Supreme court decreased significantly -> SC understood that the extremity of acts within ND were supported by the public due to the overwhelming support of FDR -Roosevelt's 60.8% is the second-largest percentage in U.S. history since 1820