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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (50)
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1

Total incarcerated in prisons and jails

2.2 million
(1.5, 700k)

2

People on probation

4 million

3

Parole

800k

4

Black to White Ratio in Sentencing

5.6 : 1

5

Hispanic to White Ratio

1.8 : 1

6

Juveniles in Custody

61k

7

State Corrections Expenditures

51,984,000,000

8

Michigan spends on corrections

2 billion

9

Incarcerated in michigan

61k

10

Prison population in US since 1980

300k to 1.5 million

11

US makes up about ___of the world’s population yet has about ____ of the world’s incarcerated population

5%, 25%

12

____ incarcerated per 100,000

716

13

Over ____ federal prisoners are there for drugs

50%

14

Women’s incarceration population has grown

much faster
(50%) than the men’s incarceration population

15

Incarceration per 100,000

463 white, 2841 black

16

1 : ___ men will be incarcerated
1: ____ white men, 1 : ___ Black

9, 17, 3
56, 111, 18

17

Incarceration rate going ___ fairly steadily, even though violent crime rate has been dropping steadily. The rates co-vary independently of one another.

UP

18

Penal Populism

Much of our beliefs about punishment are social constructions that are created and shared through social media without any research evidence to support claims.

Appeals to popular emotion rather than thorough investigation.

19

The New Penology

New penology adopts an actuarial approach in which specialists assess the risks of specific criminal subpopulations and recommend strategies to control those particular groups.

Controlling certain populations and groups, like locking up drug dealers. Not individuals, but groups. ‘Street level criminals are more dangerous than white collar criminals’

Powdered cocaine vs. Crack Cocaine

20

Traditional Penology

Traditional penology stemmed from criminal law and criminology, with an emphasis on punishing and correcting individuals.

21

New Punitiveness

Emphasis on retribution: You deserve to be punished

Political paranoia
Drug scares

Protestant fundamentalism and intolerance

Politicization of criminal justice

Racialization of crime and punishment
100:1 rule
1 gram of crack is equal to 100 grams of cocaine
Drug scares: reefer madness

22

Society of spectacle vs. society of surveillance

We want to watch these things, like true crime shows and celebrity murder cases. Jeffrey Dahmer

23

Foucault

power and control

Identifies power and control of surveillance by the state. We are being controlled in ways we don’t even know.

24

Durkheim

culture and meaning

We are attracted to crime and punishment because it separates us from them, it sets boundaries

25

Lex Talionis

the law of retaliation or retribution. A form of revenge.

26

Wergild

under medieval law, the money paid by offenders to compensate victims and the state for a criminal offense

27

Code of Hammurabi

Mesopotamia (Modern Iran and Iraq)
Comprehensive and standardized laws
282 laws with specified crimes and punishments
Fair retribution “eye for an eye”
Discriminatory; distinguished among punishments by social class.

28

Roman Law

The Twelve Tables (450 B.C.) were earliest attempt to document Roman Law. Codes designed to protect the interests of wealthy and the commoners.
Justinian Codes (529 A.D.) – a collection of past laws (the Twelve Tables) and the opinions of legal jurists. Serves as foundation for civil law.

29

Salic Law

Early Germanic law that replaced Roman Law. Comprised largely of fines or wergild.
Based on a clearly defined class system area, quantified by the wergild associated with each of them.
Higher class = less punishment
The more powerful the victim of a crime, the more severe the fine or punishment.

30

Enlightenment

Challenged the dominant status quo of the church and tried to understand human behavior based on rationality and not so much God.