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1

Social, political, and economics of Juvenile Delinquency

• The family as agent of social control.
• Middle class norms defined good behavior.
• Deviation from middle class norms could result in more state control exerted over child.
• Middle class children generally didn’t work outside home.
• Lower income children worked or were absent parental supervision as both parents worked.
• Increased industrialism and urbanization resulted in state exerting more formal social control.

2

First Juvenile Court

Cook county Chicago in 1869

3

After peaking in 1995, the rate of youth confinement has

Since dropped by 41%

4

Most Youth are confined (40%) are confined for

Non-violent offenses

5

____% of youth are confined for a violent crime

25%

6

Juveniles in the system

• Formal and informal control
• Police discretion
• Role of race and gender
• Class bias
• Juvenile vs. adult system
• Status offenses vs. crime

7

In 2011, how many arrests were there of people under the age of 18?

1.5 million

8

• The number of arrests of juveniles in 2011 was ____ than the number of arrests in 2002.

31% fewer

9

Changes in Arrests over Time

Down 27% from 2002-2011
Decline in confinement as well
Very high recidivism rates

10

Costs to lock up

88k for a juvenile
25-30k for an adult

11

Miller v. Alabama

No automatic sentences for juveniles- life in prison for homicide

12

Overrepresentation of people of color

There are numerically more people of color locked up and it is disproportionate

13

Racialization of Crime

More minorities are convicted of crimes, compared to arrest rates, driven by new punitiveness . Very large discrepancy in arrest/incarceration data

14

Arrests for whites - Racialization of crime

69% of people who were arrested were white, yet accounted for less than 50% of the incarceration population

15

Marijuana arrests make up ____ of the drug crimes in the US

50%

16

Blacks are ____ more likely to be arrested for possession than whites, even though they use at similar rates

3.7x

17

Drug abuse violation arrests

18% are for sale, manufacture
81% are for possession

18

One in 31 report

In 2007, 1 in 31 adults were under some form of correctional control.

19

In michigan in 2007, the ratio of adults under correctional control

1 in 27 adults were under some form of correctional control

20

Pew Center Study on Economic Mobility

More young (20 to 34-year-old) African American men without a high school diploma or GED are currently behind bars (37 percent) than employed (26 percent).

21

Impact of incarceration on earnings

Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by approximately 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks and annual earnings by 40 percent.

22

Children with fathers who have been incarcerated are

Significantly more likely than other children to be expelled or suspended from school (23 percent compared with 4 percent)

23

Parens Patriae

Parent of the country
State can intervene and become the parent or guardian if the legal parents are negligible

24

Current mission of the juvenile court is to

through the individualistic approach, dispense personalized justice by minimizing the authoritative features and maximize the authoritative relationship with social service agencies

25

Trends in juvenile punishment

are moving towards more of a rehabilitative approach to both save money as well as reduce high recidivism rates

26

Scottsboro boys

Arrested for "rape" on a train. Acquitted after not receiving adequate council. violation of due process

27

African American Males are

Overrepresented in the criminal justice system 6:1 whites