Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (27)
Social, political, and economics of Juvenile Delinquency
• The family as agent of social control.
• Middle class norms defined good behavior.
• Deviation from middle class norms could result in more state control exerted over child.
• Middle class children generally didn’t work outside home.
• Lower income children worked or were absent parental supervision as both parents worked.
• Increased industrialism and urbanization resulted in state exerting more formal social control.
First Juvenile Court
Cook county Chicago in 1869
After peaking in 1995, the rate of youth confinement has
Since dropped by 41%
Most Youth are confined (40%) are confined for
____% of youth are confined for a violent crime
Juveniles in the system
• Formal and informal control
• Police discretion
• Role of race and gender
• Class bias
• Juvenile vs. adult system
• Status offenses vs. crime
In 2011, how many arrests were there of people under the age of 18?
• The number of arrests of juveniles in 2011 was ____ than the number of arrests in 2002.
Changes in Arrests over Time
Down 27% from 2002-2011
Decline in confinement as well
Very high recidivism rates
Costs to lock up
88k for a juvenile
25-30k for an adult
Miller v. Alabama
No automatic sentences for juveniles- life in prison for homicide
Overrepresentation of people of color
There are numerically more people of color locked up and it is disproportionate
Racialization of Crime
More minorities are convicted of crimes, compared to arrest rates, driven by new punitiveness . Very large discrepancy in arrest/incarceration data
Arrests for whites - Racialization of crime
69% of people who were arrested were white, yet accounted for less than 50% of the incarceration population
Marijuana arrests make up ____ of the drug crimes in the US
Blacks are ____ more likely to be arrested for possession than whites, even though they use at similar rates
Drug abuse violation arrests
18% are for sale, manufacture
81% are for possession
One in 31 report
In 2007, 1 in 31 adults were under some form of correctional control.
In michigan in 2007, the ratio of adults under correctional control
1 in 27 adults were under some form of correctional control
Pew Center Study on Economic Mobility
More young (20 to 34-year-old) African American men without a high school diploma or GED are currently behind bars (37 percent) than employed (26 percent).
Impact of incarceration on earnings
Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by approximately 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks and annual earnings by 40 percent.
Children with fathers who have been incarcerated are
Significantly more likely than other children to be expelled or suspended from school (23 percent compared with 4 percent)
Parent of the country
State can intervene and become the parent or guardian if the legal parents are negligible
Current mission of the juvenile court is to
through the individualistic approach, dispense personalized justice by minimizing the authoritative features and maximize the authoritative relationship with social service agencies
Trends in juvenile punishment
are moving towards more of a rehabilitative approach to both save money as well as reduce high recidivism rates
Arrested for "rape" on a train. Acquitted after not receiving adequate council. violation of due process