Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (26)
Indispensable Amino Acids
Of the 20 AA 9 are considered indispensable because the body cannot manufacture them.
Dispensable Amino Acids
Of the 20 AA 11 are considered dispensable because they can be manufactured in the liver.
Conditionally Indispensable Amino Acids
Of the 11 Dispensable AA 6 of them are referred to as conditionally indispensable, because during periods of stress the body cannot manufacture a sufficient amount.
A protein that contains all the indespensable amino acids in the proper concentrations and proportions to each other to prevent amino acids deficiencies and to support growth.
A protein that lacks one of more of the indespensable amino acids in the proper amounts and proportions to each other to prevent amino acid deficiencies and to support growth.
Indespensable Amino Acids (Names)
Combining two incomplete proteins to bring the total concentration of all the indispensable amino acids to an adequate level.
Immune System Proteins
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)
The liver has very low levels of the enzyme BCAA transferase, which is needed to transfer these amino acids to tissues. Therefore, the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) leave the liver, circulate in the plasma, and are taken up by skeletal muscle cells, which have high levels of the enzyme that the liver lacks.
The removal of an amino group from the amino acid, resulting in a carbon skeleton.
Involves the transfer of an amino group to another carbon skeleton, whereby an amino acid is formed.
Anabolism is a metabolic process involving the synthesis of simple molecules into complex molecules.
Muscle produces pyruvate as a result of using the glycolysis or glycogenolysis energy pathway. This pyruvate can be converted to alanine, which is then released into the blood and taken up by the liver. The liver can then convert the alanine to pyruvate for use in gluconeogenesis to produce glucose. The newly formed glucose can be released into the blood for distribution throughout the body and used by a variety of tissues.
Protein Recommendations Sedentary Adults
Protein Recommendations Recreational Athletes
Protein Recommendations Endurance Athletes
1.2 - 1.4 g/kg
Protein Recommendations Ultraendurance Athletes
1.2 - 2.0 g/kg
Protein Recommendations Strength Athletes
1.2 - 1.7 g/kg
1.5 - 2.0 g/kg
Protein Consumption After Exercise
Research suggest that 10-20g of high quality protien is an appropriate amount of protein to consume after exercise.
Monosaccharides in Foods
Glucose - Sweetness=75 GI=100
Fructose - Sweetness=170 GI=19
Galactose - Sweetness=30 GI=unknown
Disaccharides in Foods
Sucrose (Glucose+Fructose) - Sweetness=100 GI=68
Lactose (Glucose+Galactose) - Sweetness=15 GI=46
Maltose (Glucose+Glucose) - Sweetness=40 GI=105
Glucagon breaks down glycogen. It is secreted during periods of fasting or starvation and exercise. During exercise, insulin secretion is suppressed and glucagon secretion is stimulated.
Glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood, thus acting to maintain or increase blood glucose.
Carbs 1 hour before exercise
Carbs 2 hours before exercise
Carbs 3-4 hours before exercise