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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (26)
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1

Indispensable Amino Acids

Of the 20 AA 9 are considered indispensable because the body cannot manufacture them.

2

Dispensable Amino Acids

Of the 20 AA 11 are considered dispensable because they can be manufactured in the liver.

3

Conditionally Indispensable Amino Acids

Of the 11 Dispensable AA 6 of them are referred to as conditionally indispensable, because during periods of stress the body cannot manufacture a sufficient amount.

4

Complete Proteins

A protein that contains all the indespensable amino acids in the proper concentrations and proportions to each other to prevent amino acids deficiencies and to support growth.

5

Incomplete Proteins

A protein that lacks one of more of the indespensable amino acids in the proper amounts and proportions to each other to prevent amino acid deficiencies and to support growth.

6

Indespensable Amino Acids (Names)

1. Lysine
2. Threonine

Sulfer Containing
3. Cysterine
4. Methionine

7

Complementary Proteins

Combining two incomplete proteins to bring the total concentration of all the indispensable amino acids to an adequate level.

8

Protein Functions

Enzymes
Hormones
Structural Proteins
Transport Proteins
Immune System Proteins

9

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)

Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine

The liver has very low levels of the enzyme BCAA transferase, which is needed to transfer these amino acids to tissues. Therefore, the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) leave the liver, circulate in the plasma, and are taken up by skeletal muscle cells, which have high levels of the enzyme that the liver lacks.

10

Deamination

The removal of an amino group from the amino acid, resulting in a carbon skeleton.

11

Transamination

Involves the transfer of an amino group to another carbon skeleton, whereby an amino acid is formed.

12

Protein Anabolism

Anabolism is a metabolic process involving the synthesis of simple molecules into complex molecules.

13

Glucose-Alanine Cycle

Muscle produces pyruvate as a result of using the glycolysis or glycogenolysis energy pathway. This pyruvate can be converted to alanine, which is then released into the blood and taken up by the liver. The liver can then convert the alanine to pyruvate for use in gluconeogenesis to produce glucose. The newly formed glucose can be released into the blood for distribution throughout the body and used by a variety of tissues.

14

Protein Recommendations Sedentary Adults

0.8 g/kg

15

Protein Recommendations Recreational Athletes

1.0 g/kg

16

Protein Recommendations Endurance Athletes

1.2 - 1.4 g/kg

17

Protein Recommendations Ultraendurance Athletes

1.2 - 2.0 g/kg

18

Protein Recommendations Strength Athletes

1.2 - 1.7 g/kg
1.5 - 2.0 g/kg

19

Protein Consumption After Exercise

Research suggest that 10-20g of high quality protien is an appropriate amount of protein to consume after exercise.

20

Monosaccharides in Foods

Glucose - Sweetness=75 GI=100
Fructose - Sweetness=170 GI=19
Galactose - Sweetness=30 GI=unknown

21

Disaccharides in Foods

Sucrose (Glucose+Fructose) - Sweetness=100 GI=68
Lactose (Glucose+Galactose) - Sweetness=15 GI=46
Maltose (Glucose+Glucose) - Sweetness=40 GI=105

22

Glucagon

Glucagon breaks down glycogen. It is secreted during periods of fasting or starvation and exercise. During exercise, insulin secretion is suppressed and glucagon secretion is stimulated.

Glucagon stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood, thus acting to maintain or increase blood glucose.

23

Carbs 1 hour before exercise

1 g/kg

24

Carbs 2 hours before exercise

2 g/kg

25

Carbs 3-4 hours before exercise

3-4.5 g/kg

26

Carbs Consumption During Exercise

30-60 g of carbs should be consumed each hour during prolonged exercise as either fluid or food