Quiz #3: labs 13, 14, 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz #3: labs 13, 14, 15 Deck (16)
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why is genetics considered one of the most important disciplines of biology?

Because it teaches people how traits are inherited from one generation to the next.


Difference between genotype and phenotype

Genotype is an organism's genetic makeup. A phenotype is an organism's physical traits.


Hardy-Weinberg equation

Used to determine the proportions of genotypes in a population


why is inbreeding dangerous?

Because genetic disorders will be more likely to be inherited.


what is the chemical composition of DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that is made of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.


What is replication

A process that allows DNA to make copies of itself


function of protein synthesis

Process of building proteins from amino acids


compare and contrast transcription and translation

transcription: process where chemical information encoded in DNA is copied into RNA
translation: process that represents the expression of the genetic code


three types of RNA and their functions

tRNA: connectors that link an mRNA codon to a specific amino acid
mRNA: forms codons that specify amino acids in protein synthesis
ribosomal RNA: forms ribosomes


compare and contrast DNA and RNA

DNA: deoxyribose sugar; base pairs A-T and C-G, double strand
RNA: ribose sugar; base pairs A-uracil and C-G; single strand


what is meant by the semiconservative nature of DNA?

one strand of DNA serves as a direct template for the new strand, and the other strand is pieced together


first step of translation

initiation: starts when mRNA associates with a small ribosomal subunit. AUG codon recognized as start site by tRNA molecule with an anticodon to AUG -> amino acid methionine is attached to the region of the tRNA opposite to the anticodon


second step of translation

elongation: each successive codon is read by tRNA molecules that bring corresponding amino acids. amino acids are linked by peptide bonds formed by catalytic components of the ribosome


third step of translation

termination: occurs when a stop codon is encountered


significance of start and stop codons in protein synthesis

AUG codon encodes for methionine and serves as a start signal for building a protein. Stop codons end the formation of a protein


how introns differ from exons

exons are coding portions of DNA, while introns are noncoding portions.