Flashcards in Quiz #3: labs 13, 14, 15 Deck (16)
why is genetics considered one of the most important disciplines of biology?
Because it teaches people how traits are inherited from one generation to the next.
Difference between genotype and phenotype
Genotype is an organism's genetic makeup. A phenotype is an organism's physical traits.
Used to determine the proportions of genotypes in a population
why is inbreeding dangerous?
Because genetic disorders will be more likely to be inherited.
what is the chemical composition of DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that is made of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
What is replication
A process that allows DNA to make copies of itself
function of protein synthesis
Process of building proteins from amino acids
compare and contrast transcription and translation
transcription: process where chemical information encoded in DNA is copied into RNA
translation: process that represents the expression of the genetic code
three types of RNA and their functions
tRNA: connectors that link an mRNA codon to a specific amino acid
mRNA: forms codons that specify amino acids in protein synthesis
ribosomal RNA: forms ribosomes
compare and contrast DNA and RNA
DNA: deoxyribose sugar; base pairs A-T and C-G, double strand
RNA: ribose sugar; base pairs A-uracil and C-G; single strand
what is meant by the semiconservative nature of DNA?
one strand of DNA serves as a direct template for the new strand, and the other strand is pieced together
first step of translation
initiation: starts when mRNA associates with a small ribosomal subunit. AUG codon recognized as start site by tRNA molecule with an anticodon to AUG -> amino acid methionine is attached to the region of the tRNA opposite to the anticodon
second step of translation
elongation: each successive codon is read by tRNA molecules that bring corresponding amino acids. amino acids are linked by peptide bonds formed by catalytic components of the ribosome
third step of translation
termination: occurs when a stop codon is encountered
significance of start and stop codons in protein synthesis
AUG codon encodes for methionine and serves as a start signal for building a protein. Stop codons end the formation of a protein