Chapters 4-5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 4-5 Deck (69)
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1

light microscope

can display living cells

2

resolution

-ability to distinguish two nearby objects as separate
-measure of the clarity of an image

3

cell theory

states that
-all living things are composed of cells
-all cells come from other cells

4

electron microscope

focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface
-can distinguish biological structures

5

scanning electron microscope

-used to study the detailed architecture of cell surfaces
-uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a cell or other sample.

6

transmission electron microscope

-used to study details of internal structure
-aims an electron beam through a very thin section of a specimen

7

what is the maximum size of a cell influenced by?

geometry.
-need to have a surface area large enough to service the volume of a cell

8

plasma/cell membrane

-forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings
-a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.

9

prokaryotic cells

-first to evolve
-earth's sole inhabitants
-bacteria and archaea

10

eukaryotic cells

evolved from ancestral cells about 1.8 billion years ago
-everything else

11

how are eukaryotic cells distinguished from prokaryotic cells?

-have a membrane-enclosed nucleus
-larger and more complex
-many membrane-enclosed organelles that perform specific functions.

12

basic features of cells

-have cytosol, chromosomes, ribosomes, cytoplasm

13

cytosol

a thick, jelly-like fluid in the interior of all cells

14

chromosomes

carry genes made of DNA

15

ribosomes

-are composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins
-synthesize proteins according to directions from DNA.

16

cytoplasm

-in eukaryotic cells, term refers only to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

17

plant cell structures that animal cells lack

-rigid, rather thick cell wall
-chloroplast

18

nucleus

contains the cell's genetic instructions encoded in DNA

19

nucleolus

site in the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized according to instructions in the DNA

20

magnification

is the increase in an object’s image size compared with its actual size.

21

four basic groups of organelles and other structures of eukaryotic cells

1. nucleus and ribosomes carry out the genetic control of the cell.
2. Organelles involved in the manufacture, distribution, and breakdown of molecules include the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes.
3. Mitochondria in all cells and chloroplasts in plant cells function in energy processing.
4. Structural support, movement, and communication between cells are the functions of the cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and plant cell wall.

22

the ER

is a membranous network of tubes and sacs.

23

smooth ER

synthesizes lipids and processes toxins.

24

rough ER

produces membranes, and ribosomes on its surface make membrane and secretory proteins.

25

the Golgi apparatus

consists of stacks of sacs in which products of the ER are processed and then sent to other organelles or to the cell surface.

26

lysosomes

house enzymes that break down ingested substances and damaged organelles.

27

vacuoles

are large vesicles that have a variety of functions.
-Some protists have contractile vacuoles.

28

central vacuole

vacuole in plant cells that stores molecules and wastes and facilitates growth.

29

peroxisomes

are metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system.

30

mitochondria

are organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells.