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1

Biology

the scientific study of life

2

Properties of life

1. order
2. reproduction
3. growth and development
4. energy processing
5. regulation
6. response to the environment
7. evolutionary adaptation.

3

Cell

structural and functional unit of life

4

Taxonomists

name species and classify them into broader groups.

5

Domain groups

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

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Bacteria and Archaea domains

Contain organisms with simple cells

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Domain Eukarya

various protists and the kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

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Emergent properties

result from the specific arrangement and interactions among component parts.

9

Structural levels of biology

Biosphere -> ecosystem -> community -> population -> organism -> organs and organ system -> tissue -> cell -> organelle -> molecule

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Science

is a way of knowing—an approach to understanding the natural world.

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Scientific approach

involves observations, hypotheses, predictions, tests of hypotheses via experiments or additional observations, and analysis of data.

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Scientific theory

is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence.

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Independent variable

The factor that is manipulated in experiment

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Dependent variable

The measure used to judge the outcome of the experiment

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Controlled experiment

compares an experimental group with a control group.

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Endeavor of science

influenced by three spheres:
1. exploration and discovery
2. analysis and feedback from the scientific community
3. societal benefits and outcomes.

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Goal of technology

apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.

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Goal of science

understand natural phenomena.

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Natural selection

Unequal reproductive success leads to evolution of adaptations in populations

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Artificial selection

Selective breeding of plants and animals.

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DNA functions

responsible for heredity and for programming the activities of a cell by providing the blueprint for proteins.

22

Energy flows...

through an ecosystem in one direction
1. entering as sunlight
2. converted to chemical energy by producers
3. passed on to consumers
4. exiting as heat.

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What are ecosystems characterized by?

the cycling of matter
1. from the atmosphere and soil,
2. through producers, consumers, and decomposers,
3. then back to the environment.

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Systems biology

Where scientists attempt to model the behavior of biological systems by analyzing the interactions among their parts

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Mitosis

Cell division that results in two daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes.

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Apotosis

When cells kill themselves to prevent over mitotic division

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Data

Recorded observations

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Qualitative Data

Recorded descriptions

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Quantitative data

Frequency and duration of specific behaviors. Frequently numerical and measurements.

30

Hypothesis

Proposed explanation for a set of observations, and it leads to predictions that it can be tested by making additional observations or by performing experiments