Chapters 8-10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 8-10 Deck (130)
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1

Cell division

Reproduction. Produces two "daughter" cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the original "parent" cell.

2

Chromosomes

Structures that contain most of the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA.

3

Asexual reporduction

Creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent. Gives rise to a clone.

4

Clone

A group of genetically identical individuals.

5

Sexual reporduction

Requires the fusion of gametes.

6

Zygote

Fertilized egg.

7

Binary fission

"Dividing in half."

8

Stages of a binary fission in a prokaryote

1. As chromosome is duplicating, one copy moves toward the opposite end of the cell.
2. Cell elongates
3. Duplication is complete; plasma membrane pinches inward, which forms a cell wall, which divides parent cell into two daughter cells.

9

Cell cycle

Ordered sequence of events that run from the instant a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.

10

2 main stages of cell cycle

1. interphase: growing phase. Cell doubles in its cytoplasm and replicates its DNA
2. mitotic phase: actual cell division

11

interphase

Period of cell growth when cell synthesizes new molecules and organelles.
1. G(1) phase: "first gap"
2. S phase: "synthesis" of DNA - aka DNA replication
3. G(2) phase: "second gap"

12

Mitosis phases

Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

13

Prophase

Chromatin fibers in nucleus become more tightly coiled and folded, forming discrete chromosomes.

14

Metaphase

Mitotic spindle is fully formed. Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate.

15

Anaphase

Chromosomes separate and move towards the poles

16

Telophase

Cell elongation continues. Forms a cleavage furrow, then splits.

17

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm and usually occurs simultaneously with telophase.

18

Anchorage

When cells must be in contact with a solid surface to divide.

19

Cell cycle control system

Set of molecules that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

20

Tumor

A mass of abnormally growing cells within otherwise normal tissue.

21

Benign tumor

Tumor where abnormal cells remain at their original site.

22

Malignant tumor

Mass of abnormally reproducing cells that can spread into neighboring tissues and invade other parts of the body. A individual with this type of tumor is said to have cancer.

23

Metastasis

The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.

24

Somatic cell

A typical body cell in humans. Usually has 46 chromosomes. Changes in these cells do not influence gametes.

25

Homologous chromosomes

The two chromosomes that are twins of each other. Every diploid cell has pairs of these.

26

Autosomes

Chromosomes other than sex hormones.

27

Life cycle

Sequence of generation-to-generation stages in the history of an organism.

28

Gametes

Egg and sperm cells. Only cells of the human body that are not produced by mitosis.

29

Haploid cell

Cell with a single chromosome set.

30

Meiosis

Type of cell division that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms. Has to consecutive cell divisions: mieosis I and meiosis II