Flashcards in Chapters 8-10 Deck (130)
Reproduction. Produces two "daughter" cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the original "parent" cell.
Structures that contain most of the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA.
Creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent. Gives rise to a clone.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Requires the fusion of gametes.
"Dividing in half."
Stages of a binary fission in a prokaryote
1. As chromosome is duplicating, one copy moves toward the opposite end of the cell.
2. Cell elongates
3. Duplication is complete; plasma membrane pinches inward, which forms a cell wall, which divides parent cell into two daughter cells.
Ordered sequence of events that run from the instant a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
2 main stages of cell cycle
1. interphase: growing phase. Cell doubles in its cytoplasm and replicates its DNA
2. mitotic phase: actual cell division
Period of cell growth when cell synthesizes new molecules and organelles.
1. G(1) phase: "first gap"
2. S phase: "synthesis" of DNA - aka DNA replication
3. G(2) phase: "second gap"
Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Chromatin fibers in nucleus become more tightly coiled and folded, forming discrete chromosomes.
Mitotic spindle is fully formed. Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate.
Chromosomes separate and move towards the poles
Cell elongation continues. Forms a cleavage furrow, then splits.
Division of cytoplasm and usually occurs simultaneously with telophase.
When cells must be in contact with a solid surface to divide.
Cell cycle control system
Set of molecules that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
A mass of abnormally growing cells within otherwise normal tissue.
Tumor where abnormal cells remain at their original site.
Mass of abnormally reproducing cells that can spread into neighboring tissues and invade other parts of the body. A individual with this type of tumor is said to have cancer.
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
A typical body cell in humans. Usually has 46 chromosomes. Changes in these cells do not influence gametes.
The two chromosomes that are twins of each other. Every diploid cell has pairs of these.
Chromosomes other than sex hormones.
Sequence of generation-to-generation stages in the history of an organism.
Egg and sperm cells. Only cells of the human body that are not produced by mitosis.
Cell with a single chromosome set.