Flashcards in Quiz Units 2 & 3 Deck (128)
Name the 3 pacemaker sites within the heart and give a rate range for each.
SA node 60-100 bpm. AV node 40-60 bpm. Perkinje fibers 20-40 bpm.
Name each structure of the heart in order that blood flows through them, including the vessels.
Vena Cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve (and chordae tendinae), right ventricle, pulmonic valve, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta
What is defined as, "The degree of myocardial stretch at the end of diastole, just before contraction of the ventricles?"
How would you define heart contractility?
The force of contraction independent of preload
What is afterload?
Pressure (leftover from the last cycle) that the ventricle must overcome to open the semilunar valves.
When referring to the heart, what is impedance?
This is afterload, plus the systemic resistance of the vessels, the viscosity of the blood, vessel constriction, and all other factors that make it harder for the aortic valve to open.
Name 3 risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women.
Abdominal obesity, postmenopausal, DM
The _____ nervous system slows the heart rate, while _____ stimulation increases it.
What class of drugs increases heart rate and contractility?
CAtecholamine's such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
T/F. A healthy heart can adapt to stress, infection, and hemorrhage.
What is pulse pressure?
The difference between diastolic and systolic
What primarily determines diastolic blood pressure?
Diastolic BP must be at least _____ mm Hg to maintain flow through the coronary arteries.
What is pallor indicative of?
How would you find the ankle-brachial index?
Apply a BP cuff to the lower extremity and use Doppler to assess the systolic pressure at the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses
How would you find arterial insufficiency in a lower extremity?
Palpate peripheral arteries in a head to toe fashion, comparing pulses side to side
What abnormal heart sound is common in older adults?
What is S4 indicative of?
When auscultating heart sounds, you find that the point of maximum impact (PMI) has moved more than 1 intercostal space. What is this indicative of?
Left ventricular hypertrophy
What are some s/s of angina?
Sudden onset, substernal, may spread across chest/back/arms, usually lasts less then 15 min
What are s/s of a MI?
Sudden onset/often early AM, substernal, may spread across chest/back/arms, intense stabbing vice-like pain
What are some s/s of pericarditis?
Sudden onset, intermittent/relieved by sitting upright, substernal, may spread across chest/back/arms, sharp stabbing/moderate to severe
What are some s/s of anxiety?
Dull ache to sharp stabbing pain. May be in response to stress
What are some s/s of pleuropulmonary chest pain?
Moderate ache/worse on inspiration, continuous
How does esophageal/gastric chest pain differ from heart related chest pain?
Can be substernal, but spreads to abdomen and shoulders. It is a squeezing feeling and is variable in severity
What s/s of CHF would you teach a client to look for?
Weight gain of 1-2 lbs in 1-2 days, notify physician if rings/shoes feel tight, it is possible to gain 10-15 lbs before edema develops
Name 3 movements that can cause syncope in an aging client.
Turning the head, doing Valsalva maneuvers, and shrugging the shoulders
How is the severity of orthopnea measured?
By the number of pillows it takes to relieve it
What common nursing measures can decrease myocardial contractility, further decreasing cardiac output in a CVD client?
Endotracheal suctioning that causes hypoxemia