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1. What is the most common cancer among women?

1. Breast cancer.


2. What cancer causes the most deaths in women? No, men aren’t TECHNICALLY a cancer.

2. Lung cancer. Breast cancer is second.


3. What 2 things greatly affect breast cancer survival rates?

3. Early detection is the key. If it gets to the lymphatic system or metastasizes survival rates drop significantly.


4. What is the most common type of invasive breast cancer?

4. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma.


5. What is fibrosis?

5. The replacement of normal tissue with connective tissue and collagen as the tumor grows.


6. Once a lesion is palpable, what does it feel like?

6. A poorly defined irregular mass.


7. What is “peau d’orange”?

7. The “orange peel look” caused by blocked skin drainage causing edema.


8. What is the greatest risk factor for breast cancer? Others?

8. Age. Family history, early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, 1st birth after 30 years of age, alcohol use, HRT, obesity, nutrition, high dose radiation exposure to the thorax (especially before age 20), estrogen use.


9. When should women begin yearly mammography?

9. Age 40, but husbands/significant others should do their part long before that!


10. How often should you do a breast self-exam?

Monthly beginning at 20 years old.


11. How often should a woman have a clinical breast exam (CBE)?

11. Every 6-12 months starting at age 25-35.


12. As nurses, what must we avoid doing to a patient who has had a breast removed?

12. Do not give injections, draw blood, or take BP in the arm on the affected side.


13. What 3 labs might increase if breast cancer is present?

13. Liver enzymes (AST/ALT), serum calcium, and alkaline phosphatase.


14. Why is ultrasound used in breast examination?

14. It can differentiate a fluid mass from a solid mass.


15. If a mass is detected, and it is determined that it is euploid, what does that mean?

15. It means that it has a normal number of chromosomes, which is good. These are more treatable.


16. What are the #1 and #2 nursing diagnosis associated with breast cancer? Others?

16. Anxiety and potential for metastasis. Anticipatory grieving, pain, sexual dysfunction, disturbed sleep and body image.


There is a small dressing over a drain that was inserted following mastectomy. How often can that dressing be soaked before calling the MD. 1/2/4/ or 8 times a day?

17. If it’s getting soaked 8 times a day you are in a heap of trouble! If you need to change it more than once a day, call the doc.


18. What kinds of exercises are appropriate BEFORE the drains are removed from a mastectomy patient?

18. Exercises involving the wrist, hand, and elbow, such a flexing the fingers, circular wrist motions, and touching your hand to your shoulder.


19. When is a drain removed after a mastectomy?

19. When drainage is <25 mL/day.


20. What is a major risk factor for vaginal cancer?

20. STD’s such as syphilis. Herpes, HPV.


21. What is the rarest gynecological cancer? Risk factors?

21. Fallopian tube cancer. Usually over 50, nulliparous or infertile.


22. What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

22. African or Native American, multiparity, < 18 years at first prego, smoking, Herpes, Cytomegalo virus, hiv, SEX PARTNER w/ Hx, DES.


23. What are the S/S of cervical cancer?

23. Painless vaginal/rectal bleeding, spotting, foul discharge, leg pain/sciatica, flank pain, weight loss, pelvic pain, dysuria, hematuria, chest pain, coughing.


24. Is prostate cancer a fast growing cancer?

24. No. 95% are slow growing adenocarcinomas.


25. What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?

25. Intact hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular pathway, age, history, heavy metal exposure, vasectomy, STD’s, cytomegalo/HSV 2.


26. How do you test for prostate cancer?

26. History, PSA, and after age 50, the doc bends you over annually and says, “take it like a man”. During the digital rectal exam, if a guy feels a hand on each shoulder instead of one, RUN! Also ultrasound, CT, and MRI.


27. What serum level is usually elevated with prostate cancer?

27. Alkaline phosphatase.


28. What are some nursing diagnosis common with prostate cancer?

28. Anxiety, pain, impaired urinary elimination, sexual dysfunction, grieving, potential for metastasis.


29. What is most often done with a diagnosis of prostate cancer?

29. Watchful waiting.


30. What 3 problems associated with prostate cancer surgery did she mention?

30. Retrograde ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, sterility.