Mandated movement of school children between racially homogeneous neighbourhoods to create racially mixed schools
Certain percentage of funds, school places or job place reserved for a previously disadvantaged group
Members of a previously disadvantaged minority group are given a head start in areas such as higher education or employment. An attempt to ‘balance the scales’
Existence within a nation of people from a variety of ethnic backgrounds. Creates a diversity of lifestyle in that nation
2010 census by ethnicity (changes from 2000)
White: 63.7% (-5.4)
Hispanic: 16.3% (+3.7)
Black: 12.6% (-0.3)
Asian: 5.7% (+1.2)
Percentage of New Mexico population that are Hispanic compared to West Virginia
New Mexico: 46.3%
West Virginia: 1.2%
Percentage of Mississippi population that are black compared to Montana
First major Supreme Court civil rights ruling?
1954 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
Separate schools for Blacks and Whites deemed unconstitutional
First major Congressional civil rights legislation?
1964 Civil Rights Act
Several provisions like making it harder to conduct literacy tests for voters
Campaigners for civil rights
Peaceful: Martin Luther King Jr, Jesse Jackson, Barack Obama
Violent: Malcolm X and Jeremiah Wright
What did Jesse Jackson do?
Ran for Democratic Presidential nomination twice, Shadow Senator for Washington DC, special envoy to Africa
Which case curbed affirmative action programmes?
Regents of the University of California vs Bakke 1978
Bakke didn’t get onto medical course as 16/100 places were set aside for minorities. Bakke did better than some of the 16.
What did President Clinton say about affirmative action programmes in 1995?
Called for elimination of programmes that create a quota, creates preferences for unqualified individuals, creates reverse discrimination and continues after purpose is acheived
What was the Michigan mandate?
University of Michigan stated they would use affirmative action to make the state’s institutions representative of the state’s population
What was suggested by the court in the 2003 Bollinger decisions?
25 year limit on affirmative action programmes
What percentage of people think affirmative action programmes are ‘a good thing’?
What percentage of people think minorities should be given ‘preferential treatment to improve their position’?
Unemployment rates of whites, Hispanics and blacks in 2017
National average = 4.8%
Number of blacks in Congress in 1984 compared to 2017
African Americans in top executive jobs?
3 Colin Powell (State) 2001; Condoleezza Rice (State) 2005; Eric Holder (Justice) 2009
First black supreme court judge
Thurgood Marshall in 1967
Voting Rights Act 1965
Ended use of literacy tests and introduced federal officials to register voters
Which act gave minorities stronger housing rights?
Civil Rights Act 1968
How did President Johnson help protect Civil Rights?
Wholeheartedly supported Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 (bully pulpit)