Examples of institutional pressure groups
American Business Conference, United Auto Workers, National Farmers’ Union
Examples of membership pressure groups
Mothers Against Drunk Driving, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
How many members does the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) have?
Which group would an American join to specifically campaign for environment conservation?
Example of AARP lobbying
In opposition to Bush’s 2005 State of the Union to privatise prescription drugs sector
Material benefits of groups
Sierra Club sends out a regular magazine called ‘Sierra’; AARP provides health insurance for members
Group that gives members purposive benefits
Group that gives members solidarity benefits
National Audubon Society
Which pressure group endorsed Romeny and Trump due to their stance on abortion?
National Right to Life
Who benefited from the AARP’s endorsement in 2008?
Larry Kissell - Democrat challenger who saw 5% swing in race against Robin Hayes
Examples of K street lobbyists
American Leigon, Institute for Mental Health Initiatives, Media Access Project
High profile protest by pressure group
Anti-globalisation protesters outside WTO conference in Seattle in 1999
Unsuccessful pressure group action
League of Women Voters attempt to pass Equal Rights Amendment in 1970s and 80s
First act to significantly regulate pressure groups activities?
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1946
Lobbyists had to register with clerk of House and Secretary of Senate if they were raising money to help pass or defeat legislation
Which act did the Democrats pass to regulate lobbying heavily?
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act 2007
- 2 year cooling off period for senators and executive officials before lobbying congress/ department
- Prohibits lobbyists from giving gifts to congressmen
- Criminal penalty of 5 years if Lobby Disclosure Act is knowingly violated
Examples of iron triangle
American Leigon; Veterans’ Affairs Committees; Department of Veterans’ Affairs
Americans for Peace, Prosperity and Security; Armed Services Committee; the Pentagon
Unequal pressure groups
NRA (4 million members) and Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence (600k members)
Membership of NAACP?
Percentage of Americans who wanted stricter gun laws after Sandy Hook Massacre in 2012?
58% (Gallup poll)