Apical displacement of TV leaflets, decreased ventricular volume, atrialization of right ventricle
Epstein anomaly Litium in pregnancy
Patchy areas of endocardial fibrosis and subendocardial vacuolozation
Chronic ischemic heart disease
DTAP induces what immune response?
Produce neutrolizing AB against the B subunit of the exotoxin that prevents binding via IgG circulating proteins
Cancer ass. with H. Pylori
intestinal gastric adenocarcinoa, MALT
Positive Cl- test in a neonate that has not passed meconium. What is the embryological defect? What other pathologies is this related to?
Males wit cystic fibrosis:
Infertile (kartanger) --> improper development of the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct system,
which most often leads to a defective vas deferens.
seminal vesicles, and
Additional abnormalities in cystic fibrosis include exocrine pancreas deficiency, late-onset puberty, chronic sinusitis, and chronic upper respiratory tract infections.
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility
most commonly implicated serovar in cases of food poisoning
Salmonella enterica enteritidis
Hektoen enteric agar
useful for differentiating between Salmonella and Shigella because only Salmonella produces hydrogen sulfide. As shown in the image below, hydrogen sulfide forms a black precipitate when it comes into contact with thiosulfate in Hektoen agar. Shigella does not produce hydrogen sulfide, and therefore does not create a precipitate on Hektoen agar. Thus the colonies remain green without a black center.
Non fusion of the urogenital folds in males vs females
vestibule of the vagina but in males hypospadias
Hypospadias is more common than epispadias. Associated with inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism.
Hypo is below.
Abnormal opening of penile urethra on ventral surface of penis due to failure of urethral folds to fuse.
Alternative therapy for TMP-SMX for prophylactic treatment of pneumo. jirovi
Adverse reactions of dapson
hemolytic anemia: Bite cells
Drugs that precipitate G6P difficiency "Hemolysis IS D PAIN"
Nitrofurantoin (sulfa drugs, antimalarials, infections, fava beans)
Management of drug induced parkinsonism
Anticholinergics trihexyphenidyl benztropine
What and where is Ang 1 converted to 2?
Protein that recognizes stop codon and terminate protein synthesis
Hematuria, back pain and fevor. What type of NSAID can be used that doesn't affect platelet aggregation?
Following CHF, will the level of ANG 2 be higher in the pulmonary artery or vein? Why
In CHF, Arteriolar resistance is ____ (increased or decreased?)
How do disinfectants such as isopropanol work
Primary source of glucose for the first 12-18 hours. After this time period what is the primary source?
Affect of spironolactone on the DCT
decrease in hydrogen ion secretion