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Flashcards in Reasoning Deck (11)
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1

Define propositions

Any declarative sentence that expresses something that is either true or false

2

Define Argument

A series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion
Needs premise and conclusion

3

Define valid

Deductive correctness

4

Define sound

When a valid argument has true premises

5

Define fallacy

A logical mistake in reasoning

6

2 types of argument and the difference between them

1. Deductive: if all of the premises are true, then the conclusion MUST be true (sound)
2. Inductive: if all of the premises are true the conclusion MIGHT be true, but is not necessarily true (strong)

7

Premise indicator words

If
Since
Because

8

Conclusion indicator words

Thus
Therefore
Hence

9

Describe 3 different types of fallacies

1. Ad Hominem: when an argument is directed at an opponent in a controversy rather than being directly relevant to the argument
2. Black and White thinking: a second remark is made as if it logically is followed from the first but has nothing to do with the argument
3. Appeal to unsuitable authority: when appealing to some famous person as if they were an expert on the topic being discussed

10

2 types of definitions

1. Analytical: the dictionary definition - the speaker doesn't want to change the meaning, only wants to characterize the meaning it already has
2. Stipulative: purpose is to declare how a speaker intends that certain worked or phrase to be understood ( HEAVY truck - does heavy mean it weights 100 tons or contains more weight than...)

11

What is meant by a verbal dispute?

A dispute arising solely from the fact that some word is being used with different meanings