Flashcards in Regulation of Blood glucose Deck (20):
how is dietary glucose absorbed?
GLUT-1 transporter (luminal side of mucosal cell membrane)
when BGL are high and insulin is secreted from beta cells of pancreas, where does the insulin bind?
insulin receptors (tyrosine kinase) on cell membranes
what is the fate of dietary glucose in liver?
activates GK in glycolysis
stimulate glycogenesis - activates glycogen synthase
oxided by liver for its energy needs - liver glycolysis
what is the fate of glucose in the peripheral tissues?
GLUT 4 in adipocytes and muscle
stored as glycogen in muscle
stored as TAG in adipose
how does glucose enter neurons?
GLUT 1 and 3
how does glucose enter RBCs?
in what state is glycogen synthase active?
when should post prandial BGL be measured after a meal and what should it be about?
2 hours after meal
when should fasting BGL be taken and what should it be about?
8-10 hours after the last meal
after BGL are low and the alpha cells of the pancreas secret glucagon, what does glucagon bind to?
cell surface receptors
activates adenylyl cyclase which increases cAMP
cAMP activates protein kinase A
which results in phosphorylation of regulatory enzymes (glycogen phosphorylase) - covalent
inhibit glycogen synthase
what happens with glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase with high levels of glucagon int he liver?
glycogen phosphorylase is active on phos (cov modification)
glycogen synthase is inactive on phos (rapid effect)
what happens to gluconeogenesis in liver with high levels of glycogen?
becomes active (slower effect)
what is similar to glucagon?
what maintains BGL in the initial hours of fasting>
what happens when you are insulin and you want to decrease BGL
no glycogenolysis - shut it down
what happens when you are glucagon and epinepherine and you want to increase BGL
what is a glucose tolerance test? when is it done? what are the normal BGL levels? what is administered?
performed on anyone really with a
normal FBGL >100 < 126
2 hours after the oral administration of 75 grams of glucose!
what happens with prolonged hyperglycemia?
increased formation of sorbitol
non enzymatic glycation of proteins - Hb = glycated Hb A1c
what happens in the cells of hyperglycemic patients?
dehydrated cells - glucose wants water in Interstiial space from ICF = coma etc.