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Flashcards in Religion In a Global Context Deck (9)
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What are the 6 characteristics of fundamentalism?

1) An authoritative sacred text - For Christian fundamentalists every word of the bible is literally true and eternally valid, intolerance of other interpretations.

2) An us and them mentality - Separation from the rest of the world.

3) Aggressive reactions to threat.

4) Use of modern technology to achieve their aims.

5) Patriarchy - often seek to control women.

6) Conspiracy theories.


How might fundamentalists themselves be a product of modernity? G

Giddens sees fundamentalists as a product of modernity, he contrasts fundamentalists with cosmopolitanism which encourages personal reflexive thinking over submission to religious authority, it largely welcomes modernity.


Is there a link between monotheism and fundamentalism?

There is evidence to suggest that fundamentalism is confined to monotheistic religions as they have one god and much less scope to offer differing interpretations such as those found in polytheistic religions.


How might their be 2 fundamentalism’s?

> In the west - fundamentalism is largely a reaction to changes within society e.g new Christian Right opposition to gender equality.
> In the 3rd world - usually a reaction to forces being thrust upon a society by a western power.


What is Ds secular fundamentalism theory?

Davie argues that we are seeing a rise of secular fundamentalism which has came in two phases -

1) The 19th century enlightenment project - an optimistic belief in science and technology that helped secularise all areas of life.

2) Meta narratives such as Marxism and Postmodernism created pessimism form the 1970s onwards and secular movements such as Frances Viel ban became more radical.


What does H argue about the clash of civilisations?

Now conservative thinker Huntington claims that the talk of communism and decreasing national important due to globalisation is leading to religion becoming the most feature of a persons identity, this is creating a religious clash of civilisations between the west and the rest .
9/11 is an example of this

Jackson criticises Huntington for orientalism, viewing Muslims as inferior fanatical others.

Norris and Inglehart agree with Huntington arguing that the World Values Survey data shows us an intense growing divide based on social issues, between the liberalising west and the staunchly conservative Middle East.


What are two case studies for religious cultural defence?

When religion unites a community against external threats.

Poland under communism - despite the Catholic Church not openly challenging the communist regime, it acted like a rallying point.

Iran 1979 revolution - After decades of foreign oil capitalist influence, revolution brought the creation of the Islamic republic we have now.


How might religion aid development?

Secularisation argues that development undermines religion e.g modern science destroys man religious religious beliefs.
However such as with Weber’s Protestant ethic, religion may also contribute to development.

> God and Globalisation in India -
Globalisation has brought about much rapid economic growth in India, Nanda examines the role of Hinduism and Indian prosperity.

Nandas evidence shows that whilst in the west it is well educated urban wealthy younger people who are most likely to hold secular views, in India this is the opposite, Hinduism is growing amongst the new middle class.

Many argue Hinduism is behind the success of India as the Hindu values they share are superior, in this sense Hinduism has became a civil religion that has bound a nation of over 1 billion people together under the same values where worshipping god is the same as worshipping the motherland.


What does B argue about Pentecostalism?

Berger argues that the growth of Pentecostalism in Latin America is similar to that found in Weber’s Protestant ethic theory.

Like Calvinism, Pentecostalism is a necessary force to promote economic development and encourages and ascetic way of life.