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Flashcards in Religion & Social Change Deck (16)
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1

What are some points for religion as a conservative force?

Religion can both conserve traditional values & the status quo.
+ Most religions have traditional and change opposing views.
+ Most religions uphold ‘family values’, supporting a traditional patriarchal domestic division of labour.

2

What is a good case study for religion upholding patriarchal family values?

Hinduism even endorses pre-arranged marriages.

3

What are some of religions conservative functions?

Religion conserves traditional collective consciousness, with functionalists, Marxists & feminists arguing that it contributes to social stability in differing manors.

4

What is an analysis point for religions conservative functions?

Functionalists see religion as strengthening collective & socialising societies norms and values through religious rituals and integration, this is strongly believed by functionalist thinker Durkheim. In contrast to the Marxist & feminist belief that religion strengthens social stability through false conscience & patriarchal ideological indoctrination to create social stability.

5

What are some religion and consensus points?

Functionalist see religion as a conservative force that prevents social disintegration by pushing social solidarity.

6

What are some religion and conflict theories?

Marxists and feminists see religion as an ideology that supports the existing structure as a means of SOCIAL CONTROL.
+ Religion and capitalism, Marx sees religion as a conservative ideology that supports inequality, creating false consciousness.
+ Religion & Patriarchy, feminists see religion as a conservative force because it legitimates and reproduces women’s subordinate position in the family.

7

What is W..... religion as a force for change theory?

WEBERS religion as a force for change argues in his Protestantism ethic and the spirit of capitalism that the religious beliefs of Calvinism helped to bring about major change and the emergence of capitalism in Northern Europe.

8

What is an evaluation point for Weber’s Protestantism and the spirit of capitalism?
T..........

TAWNEY argues that it was in fact technological advancements that was the reason for the development of capitalism, he argues that the ruling class then adopted the Protestant beliefs to legitimate their pursuit of economic gain.

9

What are the Calvinist beliefs?

Predestination- God predetermines who will be saved - the elect and individuals can do nothing to change this.

Divine transcendence, god is so far above and beyond this world no human can possibly know his will creating a salvation panic amongst calvanists.

Asceticism, abstinence and self denial, a idea of vocation driven by their work.

10

What is an evaluation point for Weber’s Calvinist beliefs theories?

K....S...

Kautsky criticises Weber’s overestimation in the role of of these religious beliefs and the underestimation of economic factors, Kautsky argues that capitalism developed before Calvinism.

11

What does Weber argue about Hinduism and Confucianism?

Weber argues that Calvinist beliefs were only one of capitalism’s causes arguing that natural resources, trade and a money economy were also required.
Weber argues that there have been other societies and religions with these features but without the drive for work with Calvinism.
Hinduism, An ascetic religion but was too other worldly directing followers to the spiritual world.
Confucianism, it was directed towards the material world but was not ascetic enough.

12

What 2 case studies does Bruce identify of when religion inspires social protest?

1) The American Civil Rights Movement - The Movement in the 1950s and 60s attempted to end racial segregation.

The Movement began in 1955 and following demonstrations, segregation was outlawed in 1964.

Dr Martin Luther King shamed whites into changing the law by appealing to their shared Christian values of equality, religion allowed black demonstrators to point on the hypocrisy of the white clergy.

2) The New Christian Right -
A politically and morally conservative Protestant political lobby group, it has gained prominence since the 1960s, they wish to outlaw abortion and homosexuality and take the USA ‘back to god’ with the aim of taking American society back to a previous form, the moral majority is a part of the NCR which helps influence republican decision making

Both show how religion can be used to conserve and be a force for conservation.

13

What do Marxists argue about religion and social change?

Marxist Engels views religion as an entirely conservative ideology but recognise that some religions can have RELATIVE AUTONOMY and can be independent of Capitalist ideology, this religion can have a DUAL CHARACTER of stability and change.

14

What is E B s Marxist theory regarding religion and change?

In Ernst Bloch’s THE PRINCIPLE OF HOPE he sees religion as having a dual character as it can often suppress change but can also inspire protest and rebellion, Religion can create a PRINCIPLE OF HOPE which evokes visions of Utopia that help guide change. E.g ARAB SPRING.

15

What is Marxists L T theory of social change?

LIBERATION THEOLOGY, Marxists use liberation theology as an example of social change within religion.

It followed decades of poverty and inequalities within Catholicism, Catholics in the movement began to reject dictatorships and elitism, the church was reformed to provide education and welfare.

However in the 1980s the churches official attitude changed with Pope John Paul II likening it to Marxism.

LT played an important part in bringing about greater equality and democracy in Latin America, despite this Marxists are criticised for ignoring the fact that LT largely never threatened capitalism.

The movement was behind the creation and growth of Protestant Pentacostalism in Latin America.

16

What does G add to the Marxist view of Religion and social change?

Gramsci is interested in how the ruling class maintain their control over society through ideas rather than force. He argues that through Hegemony or ideological domination the Catholic Church helped win support for the 1930s Italian fascism regime. However in some cases clergy can act as Organic Intellectuals - leaders who support the working class.