Flashcards in Organisations, Movements And Members Deck (10)
How does T distinguish sects and churches?
Troeltsch argues that
Churches - are large with millions of members, place few demands, claim a monopoly on truth and are often linked to the state.
Sect - Small exclusive groups demanding real commitment, are hostile of wider society, often have charismatic and largely recruit from the poor
How does N distinguish between denominations and cults?
Denominations - Half way between churches and sects, membership is less exclusive, they broadly accept societies values, aren’t linked to the state and impose some minor restrictions, but aren’t as demanding a sects and are tolerant of other religions.
Cults - The least organised of all religious organisations, highly individualistic, small, loose knit, without a sharply defined belief system.
How does Wallis define 3 types of new religious movements?
1) World rejecting - e.g monies, suspicious of outside world largely made up of lower classes.
2) World accommodating NRMs - e.g Pentecostalism, neither reject or accept society.
3) World affirming NRMs - e.g Scientology, accepts the outside world.
What are 3 ways for why religious movements may be growing?
1) Marginality -
Sects appeal to disprivileged groups who are marginalised, they offer a theodicy of disprivillege - a religious explanation for their disadvantage.
E.g the Christian belief that the meek shall inherit the earth.
2) Relative deprivation -
When a privileged person feels spiritually deprived e.g Moonies recruit from the white and middle class.
3) Social change and NRMs -
Social change is creating anomie meaning people search for new spirituality and guidance.
What are 3 further explanations for the growth of the New Age:
1) A source of identity - a source of authentic community and identity.
2) Rapid social change.
3) Decline Of organised Religion.
What are some facts about gender and religiosity?
H and W
M and H
More women than men believe in god than me. 1.8 million can 1.3 million.
Twice as many women are involved in sects than men and Heelas and Woodhead found that 80% of people in the holistic milieu in Kendal were female.
Miller and Hoffman argue that as women are socialised to be passive, obedient and caring they are better attracted to the obedience found in religion
Davie - Women’s closer proximity to life and death brings them closer to ultimate questions about life.
Bruce - Women’s leader presence in the secularised world of paid work increasing their religiosity.
Why might women be more attracted to new age movements?
As women are a more associated with a healing role, the natural aspect of many NAMs may appeal to them more.
Brown found that middle class women are attracted by the authenticity of religious therapy etc, whilst working class women are attracted to fatalistic ideas such as horoscopes etc.
Glock and Stark - argue that as deprivation is more common across women this explains their higher sect membership. Social deprivation - poor women are attracted to religion.
Organismic deprivation - women are more likely to experience ill health mentally and physically.
However more recent trends show a huge decline in women’s religious participation, possible reasons include women’s increased presence in the workplace.
What is the Pentecostal gender paradox?
Despite Pentecostalisms patriarchal attributes it has proved popular with women
Brusco argues this is because women can gain status from the religion within the religion.
What factors influence ethnicity and religiosity?
Despite falling religiosity amongst ethnic minorities mostly in the second generation of immigrants, Muslims, Hindus and black Christians are more likely to see religion as important. Reasons include:
Country of origin - Patterns of high religiosity are transferred to the U.K when immigrants move.
Cultural defence - Religion offers a cultural identity and community in a hostile racist society.
Cultural transition - Religion can help people transition into a new community and culture by providing similarities, however second generation immigrants are much less likely therefore to attend religious organisations.