In what compartment are the kidneys located?
The kidneys are located abdominally, and are primary retroperitoneal.
Why aren't the kidneys located each at the same spinal level?
The right kidney is slightly inferior due to the space occupied by the liver above it.
Describe the contents of the renal hilum.
Hilum contains, from anterior to posterior, the renal vein, artery, and ureter.
What is contained within the renal cortex?
The renal medulla?
Cortex contains most of the glomeruli.
Medulla contains the "deeper" structures (loop of henle, collecting tubules)
Trace the path followed by blood to reach the glomerulus.
Renal a. > Segmental a. > Lobar a. > Interlobar a. > Arcuate a. > Interlobular a. > Afferent arteriole > Glomerulus
What supplies the SNS innervation of the kidney, ureter and bladder?
What supplies the PNS innervation?
Spinal outflow: Kidney (T10-L1), Ureter+Bladder (T11-L2)
PNS innervation via the vagus nerve nad pelvic splanchnics (respectively?)
What structures border the kidney? Think: Superior and posterior.
The kidneys are bounded by the diaphragm above, and by muscles such as the psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and transversus abdominis posteriorly. Note that they are also encased within fat pads.
Describe the arterial and nervous supply of the ureter.
Different segments of the ureter are supplied by different vessels it "encounters"; eg renal, superior vesical.
What percentage of cardiac output does the kidney receive?
Recall that the kidneys constitute 1-2% of total body mass.
Sometimes, an additional renal artery can be present. How common is this in the population?
Fairly common; 30%.
What contributes to the autonomic renal plexus?
The aorticorenal ganglion, renal ganglia, and vagus nerve.
What are the three common ureteric sites of stone blockage?
At the uretopelvic junction, where the ureter passes over the iliacs, and at the communication to the bladder (trigone?)
If you were insistent on stabbing someone in the kidney, where should you aim?
Stab from behind, halfway out laterally from the spine and between T12-L3.