What comprises a renal corpuscle?
A glomerulus, bowman's capsule, and mesangial cells.
Distinguish between the epithelia that comprise the parietal and visceral layers of Bowman's capsule.
Parietal is simple squamous.
Visceral is also simple, and consists of podocytes.
What is the space into which ultrafiltrate flows? With what space is it continuous?
Ultrafiltrate enters the urinary space in the renal corpuscle, which is continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule (and the rest of the nephron lumen)
What components make up the glomerular filtration barrier?
Fenestrated capillary endothelium
Vessel basal laminae
Podocyte processes & slit diaphragms
Why does the glomerulus stain darkly on a PAS stain?
PAS stains polysaccharides, which are abundant in the rich membranes and laminae found around glomerular vessels.
Name the region of nephron based on these morphologies:
Distinct cell borders
Eosinophilic & granular staining
Low cuboidal epithelium
Distinct cell borders: Collecting Tubule
Basal nuclei: Proximal Tubule
Eosinophilic & granular staining: Proximal Tubule
Low cuboidal epithelium: Distal Tubule
"Scalloped" lumen: Collecting Tubule
What structure is the macula densa a part of?
What is the function of this structure?
Regulates renin release.
Distinguish between the composition of the upper and lower ureter.
What type of epithelium lines it?
Upper 2/3rds of the ureter has two layers of smooth muscle; lower 1/3 has three.
Where can elastin fibers be found in the bladder wall?
How many layers of smooth muscle are present?
In the laminae propria & muscularis.
What type of epithelium lines the bladder?
Most bladder cancers involve this epithelium. What is the most common etiology of these cancers?