Repro Flashcards Preview

UWorld > Repro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Repro Deck (69):
1

In what stage are oocytes frozen until induced to differentiate prior to ovulation?

Prophase 1 of Meiosis I (1 oocyte)

2

In what stage are oocytes frozen until fertilization?

Metaphase of Meoisis II (2 oocyte)

3

Hormone that increases maternal insulin resistance, freeing more glucose for fetus, and increases maternal lipolysis and proteolysis

Human Placental Lactogen

4

Human Placental Lactogen is similar structurally to what other hormones?

Prolactin and GH

5

Name the tissue type of the:

Ovary

Simple cuboidal, "germinal"

6

Name the tissue type of the:

Fallopian Tube

Simple columnar, ciliated and peg cells

7

Name the tissue type of the:

Cervix

Simple columnar (endocervix)
Stratified squmaous (exocervix)

8

Name the tissue type of the:

Vagina

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized, contains glycogen

9

Name the tumors arising from the:

Ovary

Serous, mucinous, endometroid, clear cell, Brenner

10

Name the tumors arising from the:

Fallopian Tube

Tumors are rare here!

11

Name the tumors arising from the:

Uterus

Endometroid carcinoma

12

Name the tumors arising from the:

Vagina

Squamous cell carcinoma

13

Estrogen secreting primary ovarian tumor
Call-Exner bodies: small follicle-like structures filled with eosinophilic secretions
Cause abnormal uterine bleeding

Granulosa cell tumor

14

Breast tumor made of solid sheets of pleiomorphic cells Central necrosis
Chronic inflammation
Periductal concentric fibrosis
Calcification

Comedocarcinoma

15

Endometriosis can result in what distortion of organ structure?

Fixed retroversion

16

What is the lymphatic drainage of the penis?

Deep inguinal nodes

17

What is the lymphatic drainage of the scrotum?

Superficial inguinal nodes

18

What is the lymphatic drainage of the testes?

Para-aortic nodes

19

What is the result of Mullerian Aplasia?

Vaginal agenesis: no upper vagina, variable uterine dev
Presents with primary amenorrhea due to lack of uterus
Normal ovaries and secondary sex chars

20

What must be checked for in Mullerian Aplasia

Renal abnormalities, 50% have urological abnormality

21

What is the MOA of MIfepristone?

Progesterone antagonist

22

What is the indication of Mifepristone?

Therapeutic abortion with Misoprotol

23

What is the MOA of Misoprostol?

PGE analog

24

When does estrogen peak in the menstrual cycle?

Follicular phase, causing LH surge + ovulation

25

When does progesterone peak in the menstrual cycle?

Mid-luteal phase, after ovulation, to maintain endometrium and allow for implantation

26

What is adenomyosis?

Endometrial glandular tissue in the myometrium of the uterus

27

What are some distinguishing characteristics of Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13)?

Small head, polydactyly, rocker bottom feet, omphalocele

28

What are some distinguishing characteristics of Edward Syndrome (trisomy 18)?

Prominent occiput, clenched fist, rocker bottom feet, omphalocele

29

What are some distinguishing characteristics of Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)?

Flat head, palmar crease, hirschsprung

30

What is the Rx (3 options) for PCOS?

OCPs (suppress LH)
5a reductase inhibitors (Finasteride)
Testosterone receptor antags (Spironolactone)

31

What is endometritis?

Infection of uterus, usually follows delivery
- Fever, leukocytosis, uterine tenderness, foul discharge

32

What is the most common cause of endometritis?

Bacterioides

33

What is the MOA of OCPs?

Inhibit ovulation by decreased synthesis of FSH and LH in ant pit

34

What syndrome is characterized by cystic hygroma, lymphedema, and aortic coarctation at birth?

Turner's, XO

35

What causes physiological apoptosis of endometrial cells?

Withdrawal of progesterone

36

What is the underlying defect in Kallman syndrome?

Failure of GnRH secreting neurons to migrate from their origin in the olfactory placode tot he hypothalamus

37

What are the symptoms of Kallman Syndrome?

Anosmia +/- cleft palate
Hypogonadism (delayed puberty and small testes)
Adrenarche occurs normally (some public hair)

38

What all can an increased maternal serum AFP indicate?

Neural tube defects: anencephaly, spina bifida

Ventral wall defects: omphalocele, gastrorchisis

Multiple gestation

39

What can a decreased maternal serum AFP indicate?

Aneuploidies: trisomy 18, trisomy 21

40

What are the maternal serum testing findings in Trisomy 21?

Decreased AFP, Decreased unconjugated estriol
Increased bHCG, Increased Inhibin A

41

What is the Rx in PCOS to promote fertility?

SERM: Clomiphene citrate

42

What is the MOA of Clomiphene citrate?

Decreases negative feedback on hypothalamus by circulating estrogen > increased gonadotropin production

43

Cyclic abdominal pain, pelvic pain
Hematocolpos (vaginal bulge or mass palpated anterior to the rectum)
Primary amenorrhea with fully developed 2 sex chars

Diagnosis?

Imperforate hymen

44

What is often the cause of anterior urethral injuries in males?

Straddle injury

45

What is often the cause of posterior urethral injuries in males?

Pelvic fractures
- Often injures the bulbomembranous jx (below prostate)

46

What is the location of the ureters in the female?

Cross OVER the common/external iliacs,
UNDER the gonadal vessels

"Water under the bridge"

47

What is caudal regression syndrome?

Sacral agenesis > lower extremity paralysis + urinary incontinence

48

What is the cause of caudal regression syndrome?

Poorly controlled maternal diabetes

49

What is the use of Leuprolide in males?

Continuous GnRH agonist (first transiently increases, then) decreases T and DHT
- Rx for prostate cancer

50

What is the role of androgen binding protein in the testes?

Maintains local concentration of T necessary for sperm production and maturation

51

What cells make androgen binding protein?

Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules

52

What are the male and female remnants of the gubernaclum?

Scrotal ligament
Round ligament of the uterus

53

What is the function of the round ligament of the uterus?

Goes from uterus, through inguinal canal, to labia majora

54

Benign smooth muscle tumor that presents with menorrhagia and even passing clots

Leiomyoma

55

What is the MOA of Anastrazol?

Aromatase inhibitor
- Along with Letrozole, exemestane

56

What is the indication of Anastrazol?

Breast cancer, decreases tumor size

57

Result of lack of fusion of the maxiLLary and mediaL nasaL prominences

Cleft Lip

58

Result of lack of fusion of the lateral palatine processes +/- nasal septum +/- median palate process

Celt Palate

59

Obstructive developmental abnormality of male fetus causing low amniotic fluid and lung underdevelopment, along with dilated bladder + ureters

Posterior Urethral Valves

60

What hormone does excessive prolactin (i.e. from prolactinoma) inhibit?

GnRH

61

Hypospadias is caused back incomplete fusion of...

urogenital (urethral) folds, leading to abnormal opening of urethra on ventral shaft

62

What are maternal causes of polyhydramnios?

Diabetes, TORCH

63

What are fetal causes of polyhydramnios (GI)?

Esophageal atresia
Duodenal atresia
T-E fistula or atresia
Annular pancreas

64

What are fetal causes of polyhydramnios (Neuro)?

Anencephaly

65

What are fetal causes of polyhydramnios (Chromosomal)?

Dow or Edwards Syndromes

66

What are fetal causes of polyhydramnios (Renal)?

Bartter's Syndrome

67

From what structure and tissue is a Rathke's cleft tumor derived?

Diverticulum of the roof of the embryonic oral cavity
Ectoderm

68

What hormones prevent lactation during pregnancy?

Estrogen and Progesterone produced by the fetus

69

Structure that holds nerves, arteries, veins, and lymph of ovary

Suspensory ligament of the ovary