Flashcards in Repro - Female 2 Deck (73):
Ovaries are the site of________.
Oviducts are the site of ____________.
fertilization and cleavage
Uterus is the site of ____________.
The cervix is the _________.
The vagina is the __________.
The internal repro tract is suspended by the ____________ from the __________ body wall.
broad ligament; dorsolateral
What are the three divisions of the broad ligament?
How is the uterus formed embryologically?
starts as two long tubes (Mullerian ducts); degree of fusion of two Mullerian ducts varies by species
Cows have how many cervix?
What are the three layers of the uterus?
What are caruncles?
Certain regions in the endometrium that are highly vascular and lack glands. Serve as attachment sites for cotyledons of the embryo.
Which layer of the uterus has blood vessels?
What layer of the uterus is continuous with the broad ligament?
Where is semen deposited?
anterior part of vagina or the cervix
The vagina lacks true glands. True or false?
What provides lubrication to the vagina?
cervical mucus and vestibular glands
What is the vestibule?
the common duct for reproductive and urinary systems
What is winking in mares?
closing and opening of lower part of vulva, a sign for stallion that mare is ready for mating
What is the difference between estrus and and estrous?
Estrus - noun - period of sexual excitability when a female will accept a male for breeding
Estrous - adj - relating to estrus (cycle)
What is the estrous cycle for a ewe?
What is the estrous cycle length for a cow?
What is the estrous cycle length for a doe?
What is the estrous cycle length for a sow?
What is the estrous cycle length for a mare?
What is the estrous cycle length for a cat?
When does proestrus phase begin?
with the regression of the corpora lutea
What hormone decreases during proestrus?
A what phase do follicles grow rapidly?
Levels of estrogen in proestrus?
What are PMNs and what happens to them during proestrus?
polymorphonuclear cells (white blood cells)
migrate into the urterine lumen
When does vascularity reach its peak in the endometrium?
1 day after the end of estrus
What induces behavioral symptoms of approaching estrus phase?
increased plasma estradiol
What is silent estrus?
No behavior change
When do you have silent estrus?
1st post-partum ovulation
1st ovulation after beginning of breeding season
Ovulation is associated with ______.
When does ovulation occur in the cow?
10-12 hours after the end of estrus
When does ovulation occur in the ewe?
When does ovulation occur in the sow?
When does ovulation occur in the mare?
1-2 days before the end of estrus
What are spontaneous ovulators?
animals that ovulate at every estrus
What are induced or reflex ovulators?
Animals that ovulate only if matting occurs
What animals are induced or reflex ovulators?
cat, rabbit, camel
What is the duration of the estrus phase in the cow?
What is the duration of the estrus phase in the ewe?
What is the duration of the estrus phase in the doe?
What is the duration of the estrus phase in the sow?
What is the duration of the estrus phase in the mare?
What happens in metestrus?
it is when the ruptured follicles are transformed into corpora lutea
In what animals does estrus occur during metestrus?
cow and doe
What species does not have metestrus?
What is happening during diestrus phase?
fully functional corpora lutea (CL)
increase in plasma progesterone levels
When does diestrus begin in cow, sows, ewes, and mares?
cows: 5th day os estrous cycle
sow and ewe: 4th day of estrous cycle
mare: 8th day of estrous cycle
During proestrus, uterus is prepared for implantation and pregnancy. True or false?
False- during diestrus
What does progesterone stimulate?
development of oviducts for gamete transport
proliferation and secretory activity of endometrial contractions
What does progesterone inhibit?
estrogen-induced vaginal cornification
If pregnancy does not ensue, what happens?
corpora lutea regresses and stops synthesizing progesterone
What hormones increase prior to estrus in the mare?
Estrogen and LH
What hormone increases between estrus cycles?
How many estrous cycles does a dog have annually?
one or two
What phases are considered follicular phases?
proestrus and estrus
What phases are considered luteal phases?
How long are queens in estrus?
2-10 days (7 average)
Why don't queen have diestrus?
Because they are induced ovulators, so if no mating occurs, there is no ovulation and no CL
What species are not responsive to photoperiods in regards to estrous cycles?
bovine, porcine, some ovine breeds
What is continual polyestrous?
regular estrous cycles throughout the year (not responsive to photoperiod)
What is seasonal polyestrous?
regular estrous cycles during part of the year (responsive to photoperiod)
What animals are short day seasonal breeders?
ovine, caprine, cervids
What animals are long day seasonal breeders?
equine, feline, hamster
What is diestrous?
two estrus per year
What animals are diestrous?
What is seasonally monoestrous?
one cycle per year
What animals are seasonally monoestrous?
African-breed dogs, bears, wolves, foxes