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Flashcards in Repro - Female 2 Deck (73):
1

Ovaries are the site of________.

Gametogensis

2

Oviducts are the site of ____________.

fertilization and cleavage

3

Uterus is the site of ____________.

fetus development

4

The cervix is the _________.

barrier/birth canal

5

The vagina is the __________.

copulatory organ

6

The internal repro tract is suspended by the ____________ from the __________ body wall.

broad ligament; dorsolateral

7

What are the three divisions of the broad ligament?

mesovarium
mesoalpinx
mesometrium

8

How is the uterus formed embryologically?

starts as two long tubes (Mullerian ducts); degree of fusion of two Mullerian ducts varies by species

9

Cows have how many cervix?

two

10

What are the three layers of the uterus?

perimetrium
myometrium
endometrium

11

What are caruncles?

Certain regions in the endometrium that are highly vascular and lack glands. Serve as attachment sites for cotyledons of the embryo.

12

Which layer of the uterus has blood vessels?

myometrium

13

What layer of the uterus is continuous with the broad ligament?

perimetrium

14

Where is semen deposited?

anterior part of vagina or the cervix

15

The vagina lacks true glands. True or false?

true

16

What provides lubrication to the vagina?

cervical mucus and vestibular glands

17

What is the vestibule?

the common duct for reproductive and urinary systems

18

What is winking in mares?

closing and opening of lower part of vulva, a sign for stallion that mare is ready for mating

19

What is the difference between estrus and and estrous?

Estrus - noun - period of sexual excitability when a female will accept a male for breeding

Estrous - adj - relating to estrus (cycle)

20

What is the estrous cycle for a ewe?

17 days

21

What is the estrous cycle length for a cow?

21 days

22

What is the estrous cycle length for a doe?

21 days

23

What is the estrous cycle length for a sow?

20 days

24

What is the estrous cycle length for a mare?

22 days

25

What is the estrous cycle length for a cat?

17 days

26

When does proestrus phase begin?

with the regression of the corpora lutea

27

What hormone decreases during proestrus?

progesterone

28

A what phase do follicles grow rapidly?

proestrus

29

Levels of estrogen in proestrus?

low levels

30

What are PMNs and what happens to them during proestrus?

polymorphonuclear cells (white blood cells)

migrate into the urterine lumen

31

When does vascularity reach its peak in the endometrium?

1 day after the end of estrus

32

What induces behavioral symptoms of approaching estrus phase?

increased plasma estradiol

33

What is silent estrus?

No behavior change

34

When do you have silent estrus?

1st ovulation

1st post-partum ovulation

1st ovulation after beginning of breeding season

35

Ovulation is associated with ______.

Estrus

36

When does ovulation occur in the cow?

10-12 hours after the end of estrus

37

When does ovulation occur in the ewe?

mid-late estrus

38

When does ovulation occur in the sow?

mid estrus

39

When does ovulation occur in the mare?

1-2 days before the end of estrus

40

What are spontaneous ovulators?

animals that ovulate at every estrus

41

What are induced or reflex ovulators?

Animals that ovulate only if matting occurs

42

What animals are induced or reflex ovulators?

cat, rabbit, camel

43

What is the duration of the estrus phase in the cow?

12-18 hours

44

What is the duration of the estrus phase in the ewe?

24-36 hours

45

What is the duration of the estrus phase in the doe?

30-40 hours

46

What is the duration of the estrus phase in the sow?

40-72 hours

47

What is the duration of the estrus phase in the mare?

4-8 days

48

What happens in metestrus?

it is when the ruptured follicles are transformed into corpora lutea

49

In what animals does estrus occur during metestrus?

cow and doe

50

What species does not have metestrus?

dogs

51

What is happening during diestrus phase?

fully functional corpora lutea (CL)

increase in plasma progesterone levels

52

When does diestrus begin in cow, sows, ewes, and mares?

cows: 5th day os estrous cycle

sow and ewe: 4th day of estrous cycle

mare: 8th day of estrous cycle

53

During proestrus, uterus is prepared for implantation and pregnancy. True or false?

False- during diestrus

54

What does progesterone stimulate?

development of oviducts for gamete transport

proliferation and secretory activity of endometrial contractions

55

What does progesterone inhibit?

myometrial contractions

estrogen-induced vaginal cornification

56

If pregnancy does not ensue, what happens?

corpora lutea regresses and stops synthesizing progesterone

57

What hormones increase prior to estrus in the mare?

Estrogen and LH

58

What hormone increases between estrus cycles?

progesterone

59

How many estrous cycles does a dog have annually?

one or two

60

What phases are considered follicular phases?

proestrus and estrus

61

What phases are considered luteal phases?

just diestrus

62

How long are queens in estrus?

2-10 days (7 average)

63

Why don't queen have diestrus?

Because they are induced ovulators, so if no mating occurs, there is no ovulation and no CL

64

What species are not responsive to photoperiods in regards to estrous cycles?

bovine, porcine, some ovine breeds

65

What is continual polyestrous?

regular estrous cycles throughout the year (not responsive to photoperiod)

66

What is seasonal polyestrous?

regular estrous cycles during part of the year (responsive to photoperiod)

67

What animals are short day seasonal breeders?

ovine, caprine, cervids

68

What animals are long day seasonal breeders?

equine, feline, hamster

69

What is diestrous?

two estrus per year

70

What animals are diestrous?

dogs

71

What is seasonally monoestrous?

one cycle per year

72

What animals are seasonally monoestrous?

African-breed dogs, bears, wolves, foxes

73

What happens during anestrous and when is it generally seen?

cyclicity is disrupted

pregnancy
early post-partum period
seasonal breeders during non-breeding season