What would Pulsatile GnRH treatment be used for?
what would constant release of GnRH do?
It becomes inhibitory of gonadal functions
Whats an Amniotic fluid embolism?
Amniotic fluid enters the maternal circulation via sites of uterine trauma
AF causes occlusion and vasospasm of maternal pulmonary circulation -> DIC
Fetus Squamous cells in the maternal pulmonary artery
what would a uterin curettage look like with an ectopic pregnancy?
This means that the oocyte has reached ovulation
so it would put you in the luteal/secretory phase
dilated and coiled
lack of which hormone should you think about in Cryptorchdism (undescended tests)
decr. Inhibin B
normal LH since Leydig cells arent affected by temperature
testosterone can be fine
How does the karotype look for downs? and phenotype
Downsyndrome Trisomy 21 aka 46, XX (t14.21)
epicanthal folds, protruding tounge, upslanting palbrebral fissures, excessive skin at nape of neck
What causes dimpling in invasive breast carcinoma?
Its infiltration of the Suspensory ligament (cooper ligament)
The cancer pulls on the ligament which causes dimpling
Painful menstrual bleeding, no pain with intercourse
uterus is uniformly enlarged
Endometrial extension into the myometrium
who all gets Cholelilthias (pnuemonic)
Fat, fertile, female, 40
estrogen increases cholesterol synthesis
Progesteron reduces bile acid scretion/ emptying
pleomorphic cells with Central necrosis
doesnt penetrate basal membrane
Ductal carcinoma in situ
Whats another name for wet mount?
you would use this to test for Trichomonas vaginalis
definition of pre eclampsia
Anovulatory cyle. who gets them, what are the complications of these?
Girls who are just starting menarch and women approaching menopause
Super heavy bleeding and irregular periods
You skip ovulation so theres no breakdown of the uterus that was produced from the cycle before
risk factors for cervical cancer
3 week old kid comes in with his head tilted to one side looking away.
what causes this?
intrauterine malposition or birth trauma
what are the clinical presentations of Turner syndrome
Short stature, high arched palate
Atrophic Overy (streak)
wide nipples (shield chest)
What are the two main bacteria that cause/infect Septic abortion
in treating BPH whats the dif between using
A1 antagonists vs 5a reducatase inhibitors
A1 antags (terazosin, tamulosin) work by decreasing contraction of the prostatic urear
5aR work by shrinking the prostate by blocking DHT conversion
Abnormal uterine bleeding
which vessel do you ligate in a Vasectomy?
can still have viable sperm for up to 3 months
whats the serum marker for Ovarian cancer
differences of the malignant ovarian tumors
For urinary inctoninence, when you do Kegel excercises. which muscle are you working and why?
Pelvic floor strengthening
Levator ani muscle
keeps the bladder and urethra in appropriate anatomical position
list the lymp drainage of the male genital tract
Testis= Para aortic
Glans penis = deep inguinal
Scrotum = superficial inguinal
think about it, lymph tends to follow blood vessels see pic
whats the main cause of a vericole in a man
patent processus vaginalis
Pelvic fractures usually lead to injury of posterior urethra (membranous and prostatic segment)
Saddle fractures usually lead to injury of anterior urethra (bulbus and penile segment)
In regards to Testicular torsion
where do the gonadal ARTERIES come from?
whats found on histology of granulosa tumor
why do you get candidias with antibiotic use?
the antibiotics kill the normal flora lacotbacilli
gram positive bacteria
cell types of female genital tract
which drug used to treat sexual diseases can cause disulfram reaction? why?
like disulfram, it blocks acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase
which builds up a shit ton acetyladehyde = massive hangover
women with PCOS are at increased risk for Endometrial carcinoma
with all the estrogen being secreted, it inhibits progesterone so the endometrium has a chance for unmonitored growth
what is human placenta Lactogen
a hormone that causes insulin resistance in the mother which allows the blood glucose to rise in order to properly feed the baby
Deep inguinal ring = opening of transversalis fascia
superfical ring = opening of external oblique muscle
whats the morphology of Gardnerella vaginalis
Anaerobic Gram-variable rods
what nerve do you block for perineum and genitals?
whats the 2 landmarks?
S2-3 / ischial spines & sacrospinal ligament
in order to avoid too much bleeding during the removal of the ovaries where should a surgeon ligate?
ie-where are the ovarian blood vessels
Suspensory ligament of the ovary
aka Infundibulopelvic ligament
contains Ovarian artery, vein, lymphatics, and nerve