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Flashcards in Repro smart book Deck (37):
1

What would Pulsatile GnRH treatment be used for?

Infertility 

2

what would constant release of GnRH do?

It becomes inhibitory of gonadal functions

3

Whats an Amniotic fluid embolism?

Amniotic fluid enters the maternal circulation via sites of uterine trauma

AF causes occlusion and vasospasm of maternal pulmonary circulation -> DIC

Fetus Squamous cells in the maternal pulmonary artery

 

4

what would a uterin curettage look like with an ectopic pregnancy?

This means that the oocyte has reached ovulation 

so it would put you in the luteal/secretory phase

dilated and coiled

5

lack of which hormone should you think about in Cryptorchdism (undescended tests)

 

decr. Inhibin B

incr. FSH

normal LH since Leydig cells arent affected by temperature

testosterone can be fine

6

How does the karotype look for downs? and phenotype

Downsyndrome Trisomy 21 aka 46, XX (t14.21)

epicanthal folds, protruding tounge, upslanting palbrebral fissures, excessive skin at nape of neck

7

What causes dimpling in invasive breast carcinoma?

Its infiltration of the Suspensory ligament (cooper ligament)

The cancer pulls on the ligament which causes dimpling

8

Painful menstrual bleeding, no pain with intercourse

uterus is uniformly enlarged

Adenomyosis

Endometrial extension into the myometrium

9

who all gets Cholelilthias (pnuemonic)

Fat, fertile, female, 40 

estrogen increases cholesterol synthesis

Progesteron reduces bile acid scretion/ emptying

10

Microcalcifications

pleomorphic cells with Central necrosis

doesnt penetrate basal membrane

Ductal carcinoma in situ

11

Whats another name for wet mount?

you would use this to test for Trichomonas vaginalis

Saline microscopy

12

definition of pre eclampsia 

HTN

Proteinuria

13

Anovulatory cyle. who gets them, what are the complications of these?

Girls who are just starting menarch and women approaching menopause

Super heavy bleeding and irregular periods

You skip ovulation so theres no breakdown of the uterus that was produced from the cycle before

14

risk factors for cervical cancer

HPV

Immunosuppresion, smoking

early sex

15

3 week old kid comes in with his head tilted to one side looking away. 

what causes this?

Congenital torticollis

intrauterine malposition or birth trauma

 

16

what are the clinical presentations of Turner syndrome

45, XO

Short stature, high arched palate

Atrophic Overy (streak)

wide nipples (shield chest) 

Webbed neck

Horseshoe kidney

 

17

What are the two main bacteria that cause/infect Septic abortion

Staph Aureus

E. coli

18

in treating BPH whats the dif between using

A1 antagonists vs 5a reducatase inhibitors

A1 antags (terazosin, tamulosin) work by decreasing contraction of the prostatic urear

5aR work by shrinking the prostate by blocking DHT conversion

 

19

Abnormal uterine bleeding

20

which vessel do you ligate in a Vasectomy? 

Vas deferens

can still have viable sperm for up to 3 months

21

whats the serum marker for Ovarian cancer

CA-125

22

differences of the malignant ovarian tumors

23

For urinary inctoninence, when you do Kegel excercises. which muscle are you working and why?

Pelvic floor strengthening 

Levator ani muscle

keeps the bladder and urethra in appropriate anatomical position

24

list the lymp drainage of the male genital tract

Testis= Para aortic

Glans penis = deep inguinal

Scrotum = superficial inguinal

think about it, lymph tends to follow blood vessels see pic

25

whats the main cause of a vericole in a man

patent processus vaginalis

 

26

FYI

Pelvic fractures usually lead to injury of posterior urethra (membranous and prostatic segment)

Saddle fractures usually lead to injury of anterior urethra (bulbus and penile segment)

27

In regards to Testicular torsion

where do the gonadal ARTERIES come from?

 

the Aorta

28

whats found on histology of granulosa tumor

Call-exner body 

29

why do you get candidias with antibiotic use?

the antibiotics kill the normal flora lacotbacilli

gram positive bacteria

30

cell types of female genital tract

31

which drug used to treat sexual diseases can cause disulfram reaction? why?

Metronidazole

like disulfram, it blocks acetylaldehyde dehydrogenase

which builds up a shit ton acetyladehyde = massive hangover

32

FYi

women with PCOS are at increased risk for Endometrial carcinoma

with all the estrogen being secreted, it inhibits progesterone so the endometrium has a chance for unmonitored growth

33

what is human placenta Lactogen

a hormone that causes insulin resistance in the mother which allows the blood glucose to rise in order to properly feed the baby

34

Deep inguinal ring = opening of transversalis fascia

superfical ring = opening of external oblique muscle

35

whats the morphology of Gardnerella vaginalis

Anaerobic Gram-variable rods

36

pelvic innervation

what nerve do you block for perineum and genitals?

whats the 2 landmarks?

pudendal nerve

S2-3 / ischial spines & sacrospinal ligament

 

 

37

in order to avoid too much bleeding during the removal of the ovaries where should a surgeon ligate? 

ie-where are the ovarian blood vessels

Suspensory ligament of the ovary

aka Infundibulopelvic ligament

contains Ovarian artery, vein, lymphatics, and nerve