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Flashcards in Smart Book MSK Deck (81):
1

In studies, disease prevalence between groups only influences ______

Predictive value

2

Which enzyme is fucked up in xeroderma pigmentosum

Endonuclease

3

whats wrong with lynch syndrome?

Non heriditary polyposis

MIsmatch repair is fucked up

4

what kind of toxin is made in Staph scalded skin syndrome

who does it usually effect?

Exotoxin that destroys keratinoctyes in Strattum granulosum

children

5

what are the Rotator cuff muscles and their functions?

SITS

6

What does Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP) deal with?

This deals with the creation of Purines (AMP GMP)

and you know that an increas of purines will lead to gout

7

what muscle passes through the greater sciatic foramen and what nerve is it next to?

The piriformis muscle

Sciatic nerve

8

whats Dermatitis Herpetiformis?

what gets deposited? whats it associated with?

Pruritic papules, vesicles often found on elbows

IgA deposits at tips of dermal papilla

-Celiac dz

9

whats released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

Calcium

10

What are the heavy hitters that cause contraction in skeletal muscle?

myosin II, actin, tropomyosin, troponin

11

What are the heavy hitters that cause contraction in smooth muscle

myosin light chain kinase, calmodulin

12

What bug is ocidase positive, rod shaped gram negative that makes pigment and associated with pool water

psuedomonas bruh cmon

13

dimorphic fungus that spreads via lymphatics

causes subq nodules. whats the fungus and how is it spread?

Sporothrix

thorn prick

14

How does the clostridium perferinges toxin work?

Alpha toxin: Splititng of phospholipids

 

15

what happens in graft vs host disease

the graft's T cells get sensitized to the host MHC antigens

16

develops on chronically sun exposed skin. has rough "sand paper" texture

Acitinic Keratosis

17

What is impaired in Osteogenesis imperfecta

Formation of the Bone Matrix

18

what type of exocrine secretion mechanism is acne?

Sebaceous glands via Holocrine

19

if you have a mitochondrial fuck up (ragged muscle fibers)  what would explain clinical variability of presentations within offspring

maternal inheritance

Heteroplasmy: coexistence of differentversions of mitochondria in a cell

20

What nerve does carpal tunnel syndrome affect and what is charaterized by CT syndrome

Median nerve

pain and parasthesias,

weakness of Thumb abduction and opposition

atrophy of thenar eminence

21

Lyme dz

where do you normally get it?

what are the stages and how do you treat

North east via ixodes tick

1st-target lesions

2nd-bells palsy

3rd-knee swelling

22

Cafe aulait spots, endocrine problems (early puberty, thyroid problems), fibrous dysplasia

Mccune-Albright syndrome

fuck up in the g protein camp pathway

23

Cox1 vs Cox2

Cox 1: assists in normal function of tissues -Gastric mucosal protection, incr. renal perfusion, platelet aggregation

Cox2: works on sites of inflammation- incr renal perfusion, vasodilation, tissue repair. + Pain sensitivity, inflammation

24

Which CD is fucked up in LAD

CD18

leads to leukocytosis (all your leukocytes are floating in blood not able to go fight infections

25

what causes extra nipples?

Failure of involution of mammary ridge

they usually react to periods (estrogen)

 

26

What does CREST stand for?

whats the antibodies found it it?

Calcinosis, Raynauds, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyl, Telangectasias

Anti-Centromere, Scl-70, DNA topiosiomerase

27

Antibodies found in serum? 

Anti DsDNA

Anti-histone

Anti- Ro/SSA, La/SSB

 

dsDNA - Lupus 

histone - Drug induced lupus

Ro/La - Sjorgens

28

whats caudal regression syndrome?

what causes it?

sacral agenesis that causes lower extremity paralysis and urinary incontinence

-Poorly controlled maternal diabetes

29

What type histology does eczema/ contact dermatitis have when its in a "weepy" wet stage?

Spongiosis: accumulation of edema fluid in epidermis

with chronic exposure it turns into acanthosis

30

what bacteria can cause Necrotizing fasciitis

Strep Pyogenes

31

Ehlers Danlos syndrome

what deficiency can lead to this?

a fuck up in collagen synthesis 

specifically cross-linking

hyperextensible skin, bleeding easy bruising, hypermobile joints

deficieny of Pro-collagen peptidase (Removes the C- and N- terminals off procollagen)

32

whats the defect in Marfan syndrome

Fibrilin-1

33

Which cells are involved in Type IV Hypersensitivity?

Tcells CD4, 8

Macrophages

34

Seronegative spondyloarthits

whats the HLA? what are they? what serotype do they respond to?

HLA- B27

PAIR-psoriasit arthritis, ankylosing, inflam bowel dz, reactive

MHC I serotype

35

Where are melanoma cells derived from?

Melanoma is a malignant prolif of melanocytes

which come from Neural crest

36

How does edema factor of toxins work?

Incr. cAMP that leads to edema and phagocytic dysfunction

37

Whats Polymyalgia Rheumatica

who is it common in? whats it associated with

how do you treat?

Pain and stiffness in the shoulders and hips with fever, malaises.  

women over 50

Temporal arteritis: granulomatous inflamation of the media, intimal thickening

Steroids

38

whats the best diagnostic tool for osteomyelitis

MRI

39

What antibodies do you get in Rhuematic fever after strep pyogenes

Anti-Strepolysin O

40

What causes the deltoid ligament in the foot to rupture?

Eversion of the foot

Potts fracture

41

What ligaments are commonly injured in ankle sprains?

Later Talofibular ligaments

42

What gets impaired after a Patellar Fracture

Inability to extend the knee against gravity

43

whats a treatment of Psoriasis that involves transcription factors?

Vit. D analogs such as Calcitriol, Calcipotriene

inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and stimulate differentation

44

What are the adverse effects of Succinylcholine

Malignant hyperthermia, Hypercalcemia, HyperKalemia

 

45

Bisphosphonates have a structure similar to ______

Pyrophosphates 

(two coins in the cash box on sketchy)

46

Walk through muscle contraction starting with actin blocked by toponin and tropomyosin

47

What causes malignant hypercalcemia?

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)

48

whats another name for Anti-Jo 1

Anti-histidyl TRNA synthetase

49

bones of the hand

50

Rheumatoid factor is what kind of antibody

its an IgM antibody to the Fc portion of IgG

51

what another name for a bruise?

Eccymosis

usually presents without any note of trauma

52

How does myasthenia gravis affect the muscle (beyond just antibodies to Ach receptor post synaptic)

It lowers the end plate potential which prevents the muscle for hitting the threshold of the full action potention. so the muscle simply wont contract

53

Chediak higashi 

what gene is defective

what skin disorder is associated with?

Defect in phagolysoome formation (so you get these Giant granules inside the granulocytes.

lysosomal trafficking gene LYST

Albanism

 

54

Who gets Strawberry vs Cherry hemangiomas

Babies get Strawberry

Adults get Cherry

55

Fibromyalgia

what is it? who gets it?

Diffuse muscle aches, fatigue, psych problems (depression)

22-55 yr old women

56

Thoracic outlet syndrome

where does it usually occur

what are the symptoms

Due to the compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus in the scalene triangle

upper extremity numbness, tingling, weakness, atrophyof hand muscles

57

Whats ecthyma gangrenosum

Cutaneous necrotic dz thats associated w/ psuedomonas

works by causing vascular destruction which limits blood flow to patches of skin

58

PPIs have been liked to increasing chances of what dz

Osteoporosis

59

What virus causes a rash that starts at the face and moves down? why would a person get this?

Togavirus

-they werent vaccinated with MMR

60

What are the nerves and arteries of the humerus

Surgical neck

midshaft

distal/cubital fossa

Surgical neck: Axilary N. / Posterior Circumflex

Midshaft: Radial N. / Deep brachial A.

Distal: Median N. / Brachial A

ARM 

61

When you fuck up the femoral head of the hip bone which artery is messed  up that leads to necrosis

 

Medial circumflex femoral artery

62

Osgood-Schlatter Dz

pain and swelling at the tibial tuberosity

due to repetitive contractions of the quads

63

What are the Rotator Cuff muscles 

SITS

infraspinatus 

external rotation

pitching or football 

 

64

In sarcoidosis, you get increased levels of ______ due to _____

increased levels of Serum calcium due to increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by activated macrophages

65

Whats parvovirus and what are the age related symptoms

ssDNA virus

Children: Slapped cheek (fith dz)

Adults: Acute Athropathy

Anemia: Aplastic crisis

66

tea and toast diet (Scurvy)

what are the symptoms?

where does collagen synthesis occur?

fuck up of collagen synthesis

Gum bleeding/ gingival swelling, perifolicular hemorrhages and coiled hair

-occurs in Rough endoplasmic reticulum

67

Xanthomas

too much hyperlipidemia 

buzz word attached to achilles tendon

check cholesterol levels

68

what happens with long term use of corticosteroid cream on your skin

Dermal Atrophy /thinning of the dermis

69

Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)

Asymptomatic at birth

infants then develop lethargy, constipation, large fontanelle, umbillical hernia

70

Dystonia

Prolonged, repetitive muscle contractions

71

Whats Azothioprine?

its a precursor to 6-MP which leads to Purine metabolism (gout and shit) 

Allopurinol prolongs this

72

whats BRAF

a protein kinase involved in melanocyte proliferation

73

What are Brain hemmorahge and Retinal hemmorhage signs for in a baby?

Abusive head trauma

74

What artery is fucked up with anterior or posterior dislocation of the tibia?

Popliteal

75

Which muscle when messed up will cause winged scapula

whats it innervated by?

Serratus anterior

Long thoracic Nerve

76

what bursa is messed up in the knee after repetitive kneeling? 

Prepatellar bursa

 

77

radial nerve 

78

what layers do you pass thru to preform crycothyrotomy intubation?

superficial cervical fasica

pretracheal fascia

cricothyroid membrane

 

79

What is Spinal stenosis? whats messed up in it?

 

posture dependent symptoms

(extension squeezes it more and leaning over helps)

Ligamentum flavum , osteophyte formation, and disc protrusion

80

Where does osteomyelitis tend to occur?

in the metaphisis of long bone

due to slower blood flow

81