In studies, disease prevalence between groups only influences ______
Which enzyme is fucked up in xeroderma pigmentosum
whats wrong with lynch syndrome?
Non heriditary polyposis
MIsmatch repair is fucked up
what kind of toxin is made in Staph scalded skin syndrome
who does it usually effect?
Exotoxin that destroys keratinoctyes in Strattum granulosum
what are the Rotator cuff muscles and their functions?
What does Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP) deal with?
This deals with the creation of Purines (AMP GMP)
and you know that an increas of purines will lead to gout
what muscle passes through the greater sciatic foramen and what nerve is it next to?
The piriformis muscle
whats Dermatitis Herpetiformis?
what gets deposited? whats it associated with?
Pruritic papules, vesicles often found on elbows
IgA deposits at tips of dermal papilla
whats released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
What are the heavy hitters that cause contraction in skeletal muscle?
myosin II, actin, tropomyosin, troponin
What are the heavy hitters that cause contraction in smooth muscle
myosin light chain kinase, calmodulin
What bug is ocidase positive, rod shaped gram negative that makes pigment and associated with pool water
psuedomonas bruh cmon
dimorphic fungus that spreads via lymphatics
causes subq nodules. whats the fungus and how is it spread?
How does the clostridium perferinges toxin work?
Alpha toxin: Splititng of phospholipids
what happens in graft vs host disease
the graft's T cells get sensitized to the host MHC antigens
develops on chronically sun exposed skin. has rough "sand paper" texture
What is impaired in Osteogenesis imperfecta
Formation of the Bone Matrix
what type of exocrine secretion mechanism is acne?
Sebaceous glands via Holocrine
if you have a mitochondrial fuck up (ragged muscle fibers) what would explain clinical variability of presentations within offspring
Heteroplasmy: coexistence of differentversions of mitochondria in a cell
What nerve does carpal tunnel syndrome affect and what is charaterized by CT syndrome
pain and parasthesias,
weakness of Thumb abduction and opposition
atrophy of thenar eminence
where do you normally get it?
what are the stages and how do you treat
North east via ixodes tick
Cafe aulait spots, endocrine problems (early puberty, thyroid problems), fibrous dysplasia
fuck up in the g protein camp pathway
Cox1 vs Cox2
Cox 1: assists in normal function of tissues -Gastric mucosal protection, incr. renal perfusion, platelet aggregation
Cox2: works on sites of inflammation- incr renal perfusion, vasodilation, tissue repair. + Pain sensitivity, inflammation
Which CD is fucked up in LAD
leads to leukocytosis (all your leukocytes are floating in blood not able to go fight infections
what causes extra nipples?
Failure of involution of mammary ridge
they usually react to periods (estrogen)
What does CREST stand for?
whats the antibodies found it it?
Calcinosis, Raynauds, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyl, Telangectasias
Anti-Centromere, Scl-70, DNA topiosiomerase
Antibodies found in serum?
Anti- Ro/SSA, La/SSB
dsDNA - Lupus
histone - Drug induced lupus
Ro/La - Sjorgens
whats caudal regression syndrome?
what causes it?
sacral agenesis that causes lower extremity paralysis and urinary incontinence
-Poorly controlled maternal diabetes
What type histology does eczema/ contact dermatitis have when its in a "weepy" wet stage?
Spongiosis: accumulation of edema fluid in epidermis
with chronic exposure it turns into acanthosis
what bacteria can cause Necrotizing fasciitis
Ehlers Danlos syndrome
what deficiency can lead to this?
a fuck up in collagen synthesis
hyperextensible skin, bleeding easy bruising, hypermobile joints
deficieny of Pro-collagen peptidase (Removes the C- and N- terminals off procollagen)
whats the defect in Marfan syndrome
Which cells are involved in Type IV Hypersensitivity?
Tcells CD4, 8
whats the HLA? what are they? what serotype do they respond to?
PAIR-psoriasit arthritis, ankylosing, inflam bowel dz, reactive
MHC I serotype
Where are melanoma cells derived from?
Melanoma is a malignant prolif of melanocytes
which come from Neural crest
How does edema factor of toxins work?
Incr. cAMP that leads to edema and phagocytic dysfunction
Whats Polymyalgia Rheumatica
who is it common in? whats it associated with
how do you treat?
Pain and stiffness in the shoulders and hips with fever, malaises.
women over 50
Temporal arteritis: granulomatous inflamation of the media, intimal thickening
whats the best diagnostic tool for osteomyelitis
What antibodies do you get in Rhuematic fever after strep pyogenes
What causes the deltoid ligament in the foot to rupture?
Eversion of the foot
What ligaments are commonly injured in ankle sprains?
Later Talofibular ligaments
What gets impaired after a Patellar Fracture
Inability to extend the knee against gravity
whats a treatment of Psoriasis that involves transcription factors?
Vit. D analogs such as Calcitriol, Calcipotriene
inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and stimulate differentation
What are the adverse effects of Succinylcholine
Malignant hyperthermia, Hypercalcemia, HyperKalemia
Bisphosphonates have a structure similar to ______
(two coins in the cash box on sketchy)
Walk through muscle contraction starting with actin blocked by toponin and tropomyosin
What causes malignant hypercalcemia?
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)
whats another name for Anti-Jo 1
Anti-histidyl TRNA synthetase
bones of the hand
Rheumatoid factor is what kind of antibody
its an IgM antibody to the Fc portion of IgG
what another name for a bruise?
usually presents without any note of trauma
How does myasthenia gravis affect the muscle (beyond just antibodies to Ach receptor post synaptic)
It lowers the end plate potential which prevents the muscle for hitting the threshold of the full action potention. so the muscle simply wont contract
what gene is defective
what skin disorder is associated with?
Defect in phagolysoome formation (so you get these Giant granules inside the granulocytes.
lysosomal trafficking gene LYST
Who gets Strawberry vs Cherry hemangiomas
Babies get Strawberry
Adults get Cherry
what is it? who gets it?
Diffuse muscle aches, fatigue, psych problems (depression)
22-55 yr old women
Thoracic outlet syndrome
where does it usually occur
what are the symptoms
Due to the compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus in the scalene triangle
upper extremity numbness, tingling, weakness, atrophyof hand muscles
Whats ecthyma gangrenosum
Cutaneous necrotic dz thats associated w/ psuedomonas
works by causing vascular destruction which limits blood flow to patches of skin
PPIs have been liked to increasing chances of what dz
What virus causes a rash that starts at the face and moves down? why would a person get this?
-they werent vaccinated with MMR
What are the nerves and arteries of the humerus
Surgical neck: Axilary N. / Posterior Circumflex
Midshaft: Radial N. / Deep brachial A.
Distal: Median N. / Brachial A
When you fuck up the femoral head of the hip bone which artery is messed up that leads to necrosis
Medial circumflex femoral artery
pain and swelling at the tibial tuberosity
due to repetitive contractions of the quads
What are the Rotator Cuff muscles
pitching or football
In sarcoidosis, you get increased levels of ______ due to _____
increased levels of Serum calcium due to increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by activated macrophages
Whats parvovirus and what are the age related symptoms
Children: Slapped cheek (fith dz)
Adults: Acute Athropathy
Anemia: Aplastic crisis
tea and toast diet (Scurvy)
what are the symptoms?
where does collagen synthesis occur?
fuck up of collagen synthesis
Gum bleeding/ gingival swelling, perifolicular hemorrhages and coiled hair
-occurs in Rough endoplasmic reticulum
too much hyperlipidemia
buzz word attached to achilles tendon
check cholesterol levels
what happens with long term use of corticosteroid cream on your skin
Dermal Atrophy /thinning of the dermis
Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Asymptomatic at birth
infants then develop lethargy, constipation, large fontanelle, umbillical hernia
Prolonged, repetitive muscle contractions
its a precursor to 6-MP which leads to Purine metabolism (gout and shit)
Allopurinol prolongs this
a protein kinase involved in melanocyte proliferation
What are Brain hemmorahge and Retinal hemmorhage signs for in a baby?
Abusive head trauma
What artery is fucked up with anterior or posterior dislocation of the tibia?
Which muscle when messed up will cause winged scapula
whats it innervated by?
Long thoracic Nerve
what bursa is messed up in the knee after repetitive kneeling?
what layers do you pass thru to preform crycothyrotomy intubation?
superficial cervical fasica
What is Spinal stenosis? whats messed up in it?
posture dependent symptoms
(extension squeezes it more and leaning over helps)
Ligamentum flavum , osteophyte formation, and disc protrusion
Where does osteomyelitis tend to occur?
in the metaphisis of long bone
due to slower blood flow