Reproduction Flashcards Preview

First Year Science > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (27):


  • A bag of skin which holds the testes



The two testes (one of them is called a testis) are contained in a bag of skin called the scrotum.

  • Main function: to produce millions of male sex cells called sperm
  • and to make male sex hormones, which affect the way a man's body develops.


Sperm tube

  • Carries sperm to the penis



  • Has two main functions: to pass urine out of the man's body
  • and to pass semen into the vagina of a woman during sexual intercourse.
  • The urethra is the tube inside the penis that can carry urine or semen.



  • The urethra is the tube inside the penis that can carry urine or semen.



  • Add fluids to sperm to make semen


Vagina & Urethra

  • Receives the sperm
  • The vagina is a muscular tube that leads from the cervix to the outside of the woman's body.
  • A man's penis goes into the woman's vagina during sexual intercourse..
  • The urethra is separate from the vagina, and is used for passing urine from the body



  • Where the eggs are made 
  • The two ovaries contain hundreds of undeveloped female sex cells called egg cells or ova.



  • Where the baby grows -
  • The uterus is also called the womb.
  • It is a muscular bag with a soft lining.
  • The uterus is where a baby develops until its birth.



  • The opening of the uterus -
  • It keeps the baby in place while the woman is pregnant.



  • Carries the egg the to the uterus
  • also known as the fallopian tubes


Umbilecal cord

  • The umbilical cord is linked to the placenta
  • and is responsible for providing oxygen and nutrients to the baby.



  • The placenta is responsible for providing oxygen and nutrients,
  • it removes waste substances.
  • It grows into the wall of the uterus
  • is joined to the foetus by the umbilical cord.
  • It does stop drugs, alcolhol, caffine or nicotine! (bad for the foetus)



  • Happens during sexual intercourse
  • the man's penis releases semen into the woman's vagina.
  • Sperm travels in semen from the penis and into the top of the vagina.
  • They enter the uterus through the cervix and travel to the egg tubes.
  • If a sperm cell meets with an egg cell there, fertilisation can happen.
  • if fertilsation happens and embryo is formed


Development of the foetus

The foetus relies upon its mother as it develops. These are some of the things it needs:

  • protection
  • oxygen
  • nutrients (food and water).

It also needs its waste substances removing.

  • The foetus is protected by the uterus and the amniotic fluid, a liquid contained in a bag called the amnion.



  • The reproductive system of a child is not mature and needs to change as a boy or girl develops into an adult,
  • These changes begin between the ages of ten and fifteen.
  • The time when the changes happen is called puberty.


Why does puberty happen?

  • The changes happen because of sex hormones produced by the testes in boys and by the ovaries in girls.
  • Some changes happen in boys and girls, while others just happen in boys or girls.


Changes which happen to both boys and girls during puberty

  • underarm hair grows
  • pubic hair grows
  • body smell gets stronger.
  • emotional changes
  • growth rate increases


Changes to boys only during puberty

  • voice breaks (gets deeper)
  • testes and penis get bigger
  • testes start to produce sperm cells
  • shoulders get wider
  • hair grows on face and chest


Changes to girls only during puberty

  • breasts develop
  • ovaries start to release egg cells (periods start)
  • hips get wider.


The menstrual cycle

  • The female reproductive system includes a cycle of events called the menstrual cycle.
  • It lasts about 28 days, but it can be slightly less or more than this.
  • The cycle stops while a woman is pregnant.



Main features of the menstrual cycle


  • The start of the cycle, day 1, is when bleeding from the vagina begins.
  • This is called menstruation or having a period.



Main features of the menstrual cycle

Day 5

  • By the end of about day 5, the loss of blood stops.
  • The lining of the uterus begins to re-grow
  • an egg cell starts to mature in one of the ovaries.


Main features of the menstrual cycle

Day 14

  • At about day 14, the mature egg cell is released from the ovary.
  • This is called ovulation.
  • The egg cell travels through the egg tube towards the uterus.


What happens if the egg cell does NOT meet with a sperm cell?

  • the lining of the uterus begins to break down
  • and the cycle repeats.


What happens if the egg cell DOES meet with a sperm cell?

  • If the egg cell meets and joins with a sperm cell, it is fertilised.
  • It attaches to the lining of the uterus
  • and the woman becomes pregnant.



  • After nine months the baby is ready to be born.
  • The cervix relaxes
  • muscles in the wall of the uterus contract,
  • the baby is pushed out of the mother's body.