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MED 2042 Wks 1-5 > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (53)
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1

steps for fertilsation

• Preparing for fertilization
o Capacitation
o The acrosome reaction
• Penetration of the zona pellucida
• Fusion of the oocyte and sperm membranes
• Egg activation
o Corticol granule exocytosis
o Resumption of the cell cycle
• - Polar body is expelled



2

Brith:
when actions of progesterone dominate

uterus is quiet
prostaglandins inhibited

3

birth:
when actions of oestrogen dominate

uterus activated
prostaglandins synthesized

4

birth:
progesterone

need progesterone for pregnancy

wen progesterone low= termination of pregnancy occurs

5

birth:
glucocorticoids/cortisol

before birth, there is a cortisol surge (that can't be overridden by negative feedback, and doesn't need ACTH as well for cortisol to increase)

6

birth:
brown fat

has mito and does thermogeneniss (also has adrenergic nerve control to control thermogenesis )

7

birth:
before brith, what increases in foetus?

lecithin (byproduct of surfactant)

corticosteroids

liver glycogen (cos increase in cortisol causes increase of glycogenesis or sumthing)

progesterone

oestrogen

prolactin

cortisol surge

8

uterotrophic factors

prepare uterus for contraction

9

uterotonic factors

casue contractions in uterus:

prostaglandins in uterus
oxytocin from pituitary


10

uterotrophic and uterotonic factors inhibited by and potentiated by

inhibited by progesterone
potentiated by oestrogen

11

PGE2

act on cervix, can be used clinically to induce labour (given as a vaginal gel to soften cervix.

12

Ferguson reflex:

wen baby moves down further, stretches the wall, send signals to brain, release more oxytocin , =more contraction. positive feedback loop

oxytocin involved in ferguson reflex

13

what initiates birth in humans

the signals originate from inside the uterus- could be the baby or the uterine wall etc we dont really know

• Withdrawal of Progesterone action is necessary
• Prostaglandins is necessary

14

stages of labour

contractions &amp to full dilation of cervix

full dilation and baby delivered

placenta gotten rid of

15

wat prevents lactation

oestrogen!

16

endocrine control of lactation

during pregnancy: progesterone n oestrogen promote growth of ducts in breast. Prolactin contributes but its action is inhibited by sex steroids

at brith: progesterone and oestrogen conc fall massively

prolactin plataus at a medium level

lactation takes a few days to work

17

normal menstrual cycle is

28 days
normal range 21-35 days

18

phases of menstrual cycle

Follicular phase: variable length
Menstrual
Proliferative
Luteual phase: fixed length of 14 days
Secretory

19

menopause def

the last menstrual period in a woman who has
not had a hysterectomy

20

o Perimenopause def

time from the onset of cycle irregularity through until 12 months after the last menstrual period

21

o Premature ovarian insufficiency def

cessation of ovarian function occurring before age 40

22

menopause facts

The last menstrual bleed in a
woman with an intact uterus

Permanent loss of ovarian follicular
development

Loss of cyclical production of
estradiol, progesterone and
testosterone.

o Average age = 51.5 years

23

inhibin

• Produced by healthy Graafia follicles

24

ANTI-MULLTERIAN HORMONE (AMH)

• A product of growing follicles
indicator of ovarian reserve

the higher the AMH level, the greater the follicle population

low levels predict menopause coming

25

menopause symptoms

• Vasomotor symptoms: hot flushes, night sweats
• Crawling sensations on skin
• Anxiety (particularly over things which previously don’t cause anxiety)
• Irritability
• Sleep disturbances
• Lessened memory
• Lessened concentration
• Vaginal dryness
• Low libido
• Fatigue
• Muscle/joint pains
• Overall diminished wellbeing
• Depression

26

menopause symptoms facts

• Can start several years before menopause
• Symptoms may last for MANY years in some women
• THERE IS NO CUT-OFF AGE AT WHICH SYMPTOMS BEGIN OR END

27

earliest signs to menopause

• Irregular and/or lighter menses
• Symptoms of oestrogen insufficiency or oestrogen excess
• Key element: variable length cycles

28

spermiogenesis

wen immobile spermatids become sperm
o theres Nuclear compaction – into head of sperm

29

vas deferens

arise from epididymus with thicker smooth muscle wall
contractile

30

Cryptorchidism

newborn babies with one or both testes remaining undescended