How do scientific predictions change as instrumentation improves?

Become more imprecise (due to detection of increased variation)

What is the term for the belief that accurate knowledge of the world can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people?

Dogmatism

What is empiricism?

Belief that knowledge of world can be acquired be observing objects or events

What can be said about a measuring device that measures the same way each time?

It is reliable

What is a correlation coefficient?

Statistical measure of direction and strength of a correlation

What is the letter symbol used to represent the correlation coefficient?

r

What is correlation?

A pattern of covariation between two variables

What is the third-variable problem?

A causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from correlation due to the possibility of an infinite number of third variables

What is Fisher's t-test?

Used to compare the means of two samples

What does it mean for something to be statistically significant?

Observed effect is not due to chance

What does explanation invoke?

Knowing why an event happened

What is the dependent variable?

The variable that is measured

What is the independent variable?

The variable that gets manipulated

What concept is generalisability synonymous with?

External validity

What is the operational definition of a property?

A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured

What is predictive validity?

The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions of the same property

What is constructive validity?

The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have clear conceptual relation

What is frequency distribution?

A graphic representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by number of times each measurement was observed

What is the benefit of a trial being double-blind?

Reduces bias due to prior expectations

What two groups are produced as a result of the IV being manipulated?

Experimental and control groups

What odds are typically used to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment?

5% chance of failure

What is randomisation?

When participants have an equal chance of being in either the experimental or control groups

What law urges researchers to take large samples?

The law of larger numbers

What is triangulation?

Verifying one account with another to check reliability in qualitative research

What are three major ethical principals of psychological research?

Informed consent, debriefing, risk-benefit analysis