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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (25)
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1
Q

How do scientific predictions change as instrumentation improves?

A

Become more imprecise (due to detection of increased variation)

2
Q

What is the term for the belief that accurate knowledge of the world can be obtained by simply trusting the views and opinions of more experienced people?

A

Dogmatism

3
Q

What is empiricism?

A

Belief that knowledge of world can be acquired be observing objects or events

4
Q

What can be said about a measuring device that measures the same way each time?

A

It is reliable

5
Q

What is a correlation coefficient?

A

Statistical measure of direction and strength of a correlation

6
Q

What is the letter symbol used to represent the correlation coefficient?

A

r

7
Q

What is correlation?

A

A pattern of covariation between two variables

8
Q

What is the third-variable problem?

A

A causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from correlation due to the possibility of an infinite number of third variables

9
Q

What is Fisher's t-test?

A

Used to compare the means of two samples

10
Q

What does it mean for something to be statistically significant?

A

Observed effect is not due to chance

11
Q

What does explanation invoke?

A

Knowing why an event happened

12
Q

What is the dependent variable?

A

The variable that is measured

13
Q

What is the independent variable?

A

The variable that gets manipulated

14
Q

What concept is generalisability synonymous with?

A

External validity

15
Q

What is the operational definition of a property?

A

A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured

16
Q

What is predictive validity?

A

The tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions of the same property

17
Q

What is constructive validity?

A

The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have clear conceptual relation

18
Q

What is frequency distribution?

A

A graphic representation of the measurements of a sample that are arranged by number of times each measurement was observed

19
Q

What is the benefit of a trial being double-blind?

A

Reduces bias due to prior expectations

20
Q

What two groups are produced as a result of the IV being manipulated?

A

Experimental and control groups

21
Q

What odds are typically used to determine if random assignment has failed in an experiment?

A

5% chance of failure

22
Q

What is randomisation?

A

When participants have an equal chance of being in either the experimental or control groups

23
Q

What law urges researchers to take large samples?

A

The law of larger numbers

24
Q

What is triangulation?

A

Verifying one account with another to check reliability in qualitative research

25
Q

What are three major ethical principals of psychological research?

A

Informed consent, debriefing, risk-benefit analysis