Perception Flashcards Preview

Psychology 1A > Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perception Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What is synaesthesia?

A

The perceptual experience when one sense is evoked by another sense

2
Q

Who developed psychophysics?

A

Gustav Fechner

3
Q

What is psychophysics?

A

Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus

4
Q

What statistic gives a relatively pure measure of the observer's sensitivity or ability to detect signals based on the relative proportion of hits to misses and the group variability in detecting the phenomenon under consideration?

A

D-prime

5
Q

What is transduction?

A

Process of changing physical signals into neural signals

6
Q

What is there more of: rods or cones?

A

Rods

7
Q

What are the first two parts of the eye that light passes through?

A

Cornea and pupil

8
Q

What is the cornea?

A

Clear, smooth outer tissue which bends light and sends it to through the pupil

9
Q

What pathway enables identification of location and motion of an object?

A

Dorsal stream

10
Q

What pathway enables identification of shape and identity of an object?

A

Ventral stream

11
Q

What is the binding problem?

A

How features are linked together so that we see unified objects rather than free-floating or miscombined features

12
Q

What is illusory conjunction?

A

A perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined

13
Q

What is feature integration theory?

A

Attention binds individual features together to compromise a composite stimulus (glue)

14
Q

What is similarity?

A

Grouping objects based on similarity (e.g. in colour, lightness or texture)

15
Q

What are the two broad explanations of object recognition?

A

Image-based and parts-based object recognition theories

16
Q

What is parts-based object recognition theory?

A

Brain deconstructs viewed objects into a collection of parts

17
Q

What is image-based object recognition theory?

A

Previously seen objects are stored in memory as a template

18
Q

Which region of the brain is particularly active during face processing?

A

The fusiform gyrus

19
Q

What is linear perspective?

A

Phenomenon where parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance

20
Q

What is the waterfall illusion?

A

Staring at the downward rush of a waterfall may result in an upwards motion aftereffect when looking at stationary objects next to the waterfall

21
Q

What causes the waterfall illusion?

A

Fatiguing motion detectors are organised in opposing directions

22
Q

What does amplitude determine?

A

Perception of loudness

23
Q

What does sound wave frequency determine?

A

Perception of pitch

24
Q

Where are the ossicles located?

A

In the middle ear

25
Q

What are ossicles?

A

Tiny bones including hammer, anvil and stirrup

26
Q

When is flavour experienced?

A

When taste combines with smell

27
Q

What is visual orienting?

A

Rapid movement of the eyes to a peripheral target

28
Q

What is the ventriloquist effect?

A

The illusion that the source of sound is located where a visual event occurs

29
Q

When does multisensory integration occur?

A

When vision and sound signals are synchronised

30
Q

What is size-constancy?

A

Object size is perceived as constant, independent of its distance

31
Q

What was the conclusion of Milne et al (2015)?

A

EE can gauge both object size and distance through echolocation

32
Q

Is a carbon monoxide detector an example of sensory substitution?

A

No

33
Q

What was the finding of Ward and Meijer (2010)?

A

Blind users of sensory substitution systems report visual experiences

34
Q

What is the homunculus problem?

A

Difficulty of explaining the experience of the consciousness by advocating another internal self

35
Q

What are qualia?

A

Subjective experiences we have as part of our mental life

36
Q

What is materialism?

A

Philosophical perspective that mental states are a product of physical processes alone

37
Q

What is anthropomorphism?

A

The tendency to attribute human qualities to nonhuman things

38
Q

What is the mind-body problem?

A

The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body

39
Q

What is choice blindness?

A

When people are unaware of their decision-making processes and justify a choice as if it were already decided

40
Q

What comes first: brain activity or conscious wish to act?

A

Brain activity

41
Q

What is consolidation?

A

Thie process whereby information must pass from the short-term memory to the long-term memory

42
Q

What is the limit of the long-term memory?

A

There is no known limit!

43
Q

In the case of HM, what was the result of removing his hippocampus and parts of his medial temporal lobe ?

A

Was unable to remember things that happened after the surgery - couldn't consolidate

44
Q

What is memory storage?

A

The process of maintaining information in memory over time

45
Q

What is the term for enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections?

A

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

46
Q

What are the key properties of long-term potentiation?

A

Occurs in several hippocampal pathways, can be induced rapidly, can be long-lasting

47
Q

What is the effect of a drug that blocks long-term potentiation?

A

Amnesia

48
Q

What is the function of NMDA receptor?

A

Influences flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation

49
Q

Where is NMDA receptor located?

A

Hippocampus

50
Q

What neurotransmitter binds to NMDA?

A

Glutamate (excitatory)

51
Q

What is spatial memory?

A

Representation that encodes where something is?

52
Q

What is the name for a method which allows scientists to mimic brain damage?

A

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)