# Research Methods and Stats Flashcards

A ___ variable affects the direction or strength of the relationship between IV and DV; whereas a _____ variable EXPLAINS the relationship between the IV and DV

A moderator variable affects the direction or strength of the relationship between IV and DV; whereas a mediator variable EXPLAINS the relationship between the IV and DV

A frequency polygon is helpful for what type of data?

Interval (difference between categories or level is equal) or Ratio (difference between categories is equal AND there is an absolute 0)

Freq. polygon is interpreted as normal or non-normal

Normal distribution: percentile of scores with 1SD, 2SD: 3SD

68, 95, 99

Leptokurtic distribution

Platykurtic distribution

Leptokurtic distribution: more scores piled up in middle so sharp peak and flatter tails

Platykurtic distribution: flatter in middle and thicker tails

Differential selection

differential assignment of subj to treatment groups where the groups differ at the beginning of the study due to the way they were assigned to groups (i.e., soccer players already had better eye movement ability at the beginning); a threat to internal validity; addressed with random assignment

History, maturation, differential selection, statistical regression to the mean are all examples of what

threats to internal validity

Solomon 4 group design

used to identify the effects of pretesting on a study’s internal and external validity; the study includes 4 groups (2 groups take pretest, 2 groups take posttest)

The CPT-2 changing to the CPT-3 for patients in the same research sample is an example of

Instrumentation

Experimenter expectancy and demand characteristics are both examples of

Reactivity; threatens external validity

Whta do grounded theory, thematic analysis, and phenomenology have in common?

They all involve interviews.

Grounded theory - come up with a theory based on participant views

Phenomenology - gain an in-depth look at the lived experience of participants

thematic analysis - look for patterns within interviews

ethnography

study and observe and participate in culture and groups in their setting

Is triangulation qualitative or quantitative

Both - using multiple types of sources of evidence to understand a topic

When does the treatment phase occur in single subject design

The treatment phase does not usually begin until a stable pattern of performance on the dependent variable is established during the baseline phase

The primary characteristic that distinguishes true experimental research from quasi-experimental research is that, when conducting a true experimental research study, the researcher is able to:

randomly assign subjects to different treatment groups.

homoscedasticity

homoscedasticity – assumption of regression that the variability of criterion scores is similar for all predictor scores