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What is residual volume?

minimum volume of air remaining in the lungs even after a maximal expiration (1200ml)


What is Total lung capacity?

The maximum volume of air that the lungs can hold (5700ml)


What is vital capacity?

The maximum volume that can be expelled from the lungs during a single breath following max inspiration (4500ml)


What is the primary determinant of airway resistance?

Radius of the conducting airway


What causes bronchoconstriction?

Parasympathetic stimulation


What causes bronchodilaton?

Sympathetic stimulation


What is dynamic airway compression and who does it effect?

It makes active expiration more difficult. The rising pleural pressure during active expiration compresses the alveoli and airway. Someone with airway obstruction is effected the driving pressure between the alveolus and airway is lost over the obstructed segment.


What is the function of a peak flow meter?

Gives an estimate of peak flow rate to asses airway function


What is pulmonary compliance?

Measure of effort that has to go into stretching or distending the lungs


What causes a decrease of pulmonary compliance?

Lung collapse, pneumonia, absence of surfactant


What are the accessory muscles of inspiration?

-pectoralis major and minor


what is tidal volume?

volume if air moved in and out of the lungs in one breath (500ml)


what is Inspiratory reserved volume?

Extra volume that can be inspired over and above the resting tidal volume (3000ml)


What is inspiratory capacity?

tidal volume + inspiratory reserved volume - the maximum volume of air that can be inspired at the end of a normal expiration


what is expiratory reserve volume?

extra volume of air that can be actively expired by maximum contraction behind normal tidal volume (1000ml)


What is functional residual capacity?

volume of air in lungs at the end of normal passive expiration (2200ml)


What is FEV1?

Forced expiratory volume in one second- volume of air that can be expired in 1 second during forced vital capacity


What is FEV1/FVC ratio and what is an average value?

the proportion of the forced vital capacity that can be expired in the first second
-normally more than 70%