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What is the major rhythm generator?



What is the Pre-Botzinger complex and where is it found?

Network of neurons that generate breathing rhythm found near the upper end of the medullary respiratory centre


what does pre-botzinger complex stimulate?

Excites dorsal respirartory group neurones which fire and stimulate inspiration


What happens during "active" expiration during hyperventilation?

Increased firing of dorsal neurones excites ventral respiratory group neurons and this excites internal intercostals and abdominals for forceful expiration


How can the rhythm generated be modified?

Neurons in the pons , pneumotaxic centre (PC) stimulation terminates inspiration


What is Apneusis?

Without PC - Breathing is prolonged inspiratory gasps with brief expiration


What are involuntary modifications of breathing?

1)pulmonary stretch receptors hiring- Breuer reflex
2)joint receptors reflex in exercise
3)cough/sneeze reflex


What factors increase ventilation during exercise?

1) reflexes originating from the body movement
2) adrenaline release
3) impulses from the cerebral cortex
4)Increase in body temp


What is the function of cough reflex's?

Helps clear airways of dust , dirt or excessive secretions


What happens during a cough reflex?

Afferent discharge stimulates, short intake of breath, followed by closure of the larynx, then contraction of abdominals and finally opening of the larynx and expulsion of air at high speed


What happens during a sneeze reflex?

Activated by irritation of mucosa of upper respiratory passages exspecially the nasal mucosa. Complex afferent discharge stimulating eyes, face, neck muscles,soft palate,uvula,abdominal muscles, diaphragm and chest muscles results in sudden forceful expulsion of air through the nose and mouth.