Respiratory Flashcards Preview

Paediatrics > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (22):
1

What are the signs of resp distress in infants?

Head bobbing
Nasal flaring
Poor feeding
Tracheal tug
Abdmoninal breathing
Recession

2

What are the sounds of resp distress in children?

Wheeze
Strider
Stertor
"Ruttles" noisy breathing
Grunting
(Silent chest!)

3

Normal Resp rates in children?

<1 years 30-40
1-2 years 25-35
2-5 years 25-30
5-12 years 20-25
>12 years 15-20

4

What causes bronchiolitis?

RSV

Rx- nasal saline, o2, fluid, atrovent/ adrenaline, vent support

5

What are the causes of stridor?

Acute -
Croup (parainfluenza)
Epiglottitis (serious)
Foreign body

Chronic-
Laryngomalacia (common cause of inspiratory stridor- worse when crying or feeding. Self limiting and improves with age)
Vocal cord dysfunction (weak cry, biphasic stridor, worse if bilateral)

6

What are the wheeze phenotypes and what age group do they effect?

Transient early wheeze - 0-3
Non-atopic wheeze - 3-6
IgE associated wheeze >3

7

What's the most common pathogen in acute epiglottis??

Haemophilus influenza type B

Drooling is a key feature

8

Child with cough and right upper love collapse?

Strep pneumonia

9

After anaphylaxis to a&e, What would you discharge a child with?

Epipen / subcut adrenaline

10

What is laryngomalacia?

Softened larynx/epiglottis - occurs about 6m after birth, causes chronic strider when child is excited or crying.

See a "omega" shape on laryngoscopy.

Self corrects as muscles strengthen, but could have surgery to the "aryepiglottic folds"

11

What are the proteins found of the influzena virus surface?

Haemagglutinin and neuramidase

12

Most common cause of common cold?

Rhinoviruses

13

Most common cause of sore throat?

Group A B-haemolytic strep

14

What is seen on examination in otitis media?

Loss of light reflex, bulging eardrum, ?perforation w/ purulent discharge

15

What causes croup?

Parainfluenza virus

16

What causes bronchiolitis?

RSV

17

How do you manage croup?

Oral dexamethosone (regardless of severity)

Severe: high flow o2 and nebuliser adrenaline

18

How does diphtheria present?

Affect mucous membranes of nose and throat. Get a thick grey material depositing on back of throat.
Sore throat, fever, LNs and resp distress.

19

How to manage expected epiglottis?

Do not lay down, or examine throats with spatula (causes total airway obstruction!)

Need anaesthetist to secure an airway (then bloods etc can be taken) and Iv ABX (cephalosporin eg cefuroxime.)

20

For LRTIs what features in investigations suggest a bacterial cause?

Lobar consolidation
Pleural effusion
Polymorphonuclear leucocytosis

21

Causes of pneumonia in neonates <1m?

Group b strep.
E. Coli.
Chlamydia
Listeria

22

Risk factors for asthma?

Family history/ atopy
Male sex
Parental smoking