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Flashcards in Respiratory Diseases Deck (61):
1

Bronco - Pneumonia

BRDC - Shipping Fever etc

2

BRDC (morbidity/mortality)
What are the viral components?

Bovine Respitory Disease Complex
More thant 50% morbidity
1-5% mortality
Viral (IBR, PI3, BVD, BRSV) +/- coronavirus

3

Viral aspect of BRDC - what does this do to the body? 3 things.

Virus distress much the muco-ciliary apparatus
Inhibits aveolar macrophages from phagocytizing
Create epithelial damage - edema, nice place for bacteria to grow

4

Bacterial aspect of BRDC - what does this do to the body? 1 thing.

Manheimia hemolytica & Pasteurella multocida
- Leukotoxins alters alveolar macrophages & neutrophils

5

Pathogenesis of BRDC - neutrophil affects?

Neutrophils may cause a lot of the problem wing

6

Clinical signs BRDC acute/chronic?

Acute - depressed, serous to purulent nasal discharge, fever, tachypnea, don't want to eat
Chronic - all these + mouth breathing, weakness, but normal body temperature

7

For diagnosis of BRDC what would you do? (3)

Nasal swab & viral/bacterial culture
BAL - broncho-alveolar lavage
(will see more P. multocida & histopholis somni)
Serology (not good for an outbreak)

8

Which bacteria, are normal in the upper airways? (4 types)

Normally Manheimia, pasteurella, streptococcus & streptomycies are found in the upper airways

9

Which bacteria, are normal in the lower airways? (3 types)

Manheimia, pasterurella & mycoplasma

10

After treating for respiratory disease, what bacteria tends to cause relapses especially in BVD cases?

Mycoplasma increases & cause 75% of relapses (also found in the joints)
(BVD)

11

How many animals would you need to swab to get a good reprentation of a 200 head herd?

Herd of 100-200 animals - nasal swab of 5-10 animals

12

Treatment for BRDC - considerations?

Antibiotics - need the correct one for the pathogen, appropriate concentration in the lumen) - long acting - use the same antibiotic twice
Amount of drug
Frequency of admin
Duration of treatment
Withdrawal time
Criteria to pull out of treatment
Cost
Individual vs. herd medicine

13

Common antibiotics used for treating BRDC

TMS, Ceftiofur, long acting oxytetracycline, tilamycacin, florofenicol

14

Characteristics of a good antibiotic additionally?

Bacterial control
Anti-inflammatory (marcrolides)

15

Purpose of using corticocosteroids w.r.t. BRDC?

Adjunt to antibiotics
Decrease pulmonary inflammation
Anti-inflammatory doses don't affect neutrophil activity.

16

Purpose of using NSAIDS w.r.t. BRDC?

decrease pyrexia & decrease relapse rate

17

How do these treatments affect weight gain etc? (NSAIDs, Oxytetracycline, corticosteroids)

Manheimia decreases DMI & weight gain in acute infection, treating with oxytetracycline didn't affect these
corticosteroids - eat more
infection - no significant long term effect on weight gain

18

Interstitial pneumonia - name 5 kinds

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE)
Atypical interstitial pneumonia
Vermenous pneumonia
BRSV (Bovine Respiratory Synctitial Virus)
Enzootic pneumonia

19

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE)

Usually in beef cattle (fat herford beef cows)
Bad summer pasture, to lush fall pasture
High morbidity & mortality

20

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE) - Pathogenesis

Cows eat tryptophan
Transformed to 3-metholindol
Goes into the blood to lungs, mixed function oxidizes metabolize it
Some go out as urine metabolites
Some cause pneumotoxicity - epithelial/endothelial cell damage
Causes edema/cell hyperplasia & interstitial emphysema.

21

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE) - Clinical signs

Laboured breathing, foam, mouth breathing, expiratory grunt, dyspnea,
NO FEVER
Percussion - hyporesinance over the whole field

22

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE) - Acute vs Chronic

Acute: No bronchiole sounds over the whole lung field
Chronic - muffled sounds & crackles

23

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE) - Diagnosis

Based on history (bad to good field)
Physical signs
Repsond to treatment - remove from pasture, minimize stress, give diuretics & corticosteroids)

24

Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema/Emphezema (ABPE) - Prevent

Monensen, lasolacid before clinical signs.

25

Atypical interstitial pneumonia

Hypersentitivity pneumonitis - hay dust --> complex --> Ab/Ag complexes --> effect lymphocytes, macrophages --> causes tissue damage & granulomas
Low morbidity/mortality, management issue
Baling hay at high moisture?
Dust is problem ->spores & metabolic product (actinomyces)

26

Atypical interstitial pneumonia - clinical signs

Adult dairy cows in winter housing
Farmer affected
Chronic - weight loss, decreased milk production, cough with green mucus,
Acute - sudden tachypnea, decreased in appetite, decreased milk production, normal temperature, doesn't last long
Will hear crackles & wheezes over the lung field
Normal to hyper resonant on ascultation

27

Atypical interstitial pneumonia - diagnosis

based on history & physical

28

Atypical interstitial pneumonia - treatment

corticosteroids, preventing -> reducing the allergen load.

29

Vermenous pneumonia - what is it? prepatent/patent/post-patent periods?

Dictyocaulos Viviparous
Dairy
Prepataent - 7-25 days
Patent - 25 - 55 days
Post patent - 55-90 days

30

Vermenous pneumonia - clinical signs

poor doing,
ok milk production
chronic pneumonia
fever
Tachycardia/tachypnea
pale mm
recurring hacking cough with respiratory effort
Decrease rumen activity
Aucultation -
Increased bronchiole tones (cranioventral)
Crackles/wheezes & friction rubs (dorsally)
Hyperresonant, cranio-ventrally & middle
Hyporesonant dorsally

31

Vermenous pneumonia - diagnosis

BAL - see adult
Cytology - PMN cells & eosinophils

32

Vermenous pneumonia - treatment

fluids as an expectorant
Anthelmintics
NSAIDS

33

BRSV

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
High morbidity & low mortality
Weaned beef calves
Affects the muco-cilliary apparatus
Forms syncytium in the alveoli
Type 1 hypersensitivity
Tend to have secondary bacterial infections

34

BRSV - clinical signs

Fever
Tachypmea
Mouth breathing
OR fine & die

35

BRSV - Auscultation

Decrease lung sounds
As edema subsides, crackles
On percussion, hypo-resinance

36

BRSV - 3 things about this which cause fatalities:

Cranio-ventral lung lobe consolidation
Sub-pleural emphysema
bulla formation

37

BRSV - treatment & prevention

Diuretics, steroids - prevent with vaccines

38

Enzootic pneumonia

Second most common disease in dairy calves under 1 month old
(endemic or an outbreak)
High morbidity, 4% mortality

39

Enzootic pneumonia - causes

Failure of passive transfer
1st calf heifer
Nutritional deficienices (lots)
Neonatal calf diarrhea
Environmental stress

40

Enzootic pneumonia - risk factors

ambient temp, humidity & precipitation
Aerosolized bacterial
High pressure cleaning
Stocking density
Mixing age groups
Presence of noxious gases

41

Enzootic pneumonia - infection agents

PI -3
BVD
BRSV
Coronavirus
Bacteria -pasteurella multocida

42

Enzootic pneumonia - clinical signs

Cranio-ventral suppurative broncho-pneumonia
Dehdyrated, supprative, fibrinopneumonia cough, diarrhea
C/V crackles

43

Enzootic pneumonia - treatment

antibiotics 10-15 days
oral electrolytes

44

Enzootic pneumonia - why catch this?

Detect early, big effect on growth/repro rate

45

Enzootic pneumonia - prevention

Vaccinate dams
passive transfer
calf hutches
air quality
good nutrition

46

Viruses in bovine reps disease complex

IBR/BRSV/BVD/Coronavirus

47

IBR

Naive cattle (young 6 months - 3 years)
possibly seasonal, IBR in late ball
Aerosole transmission - loves epithelial cells --> ulceration & necrosis in upper 2/3rds of the trachea
-> compromises host innate immunity
dormant in the lumbo-sacral ganglia ovaries & testes
virus sheds under stress.
lasts 7-14 days

48

IBR - clinical signs

fever
nasal mucosal ulceration
necrosis
drooling
bad odour
tachypnea
muco-purulent to bloody discharge
non-productive dry cough (with bacterial complication)
ocular lesions
depression
decreased appetite
early normal lung sounds but bad tracheal sounds

49

IBR - diagnosis

clinical signs
serology
viral isolation from nasal swabs

50

IBR - treatment

NSAIDS
stabilize neutrophil membranes - less pyritic mediators
antibiotics for secondary bacterial infections

51

IBR - prevention

vaccinate - modified live
latency & maternal antibodies.

52

Fibrinopluritis pleuropneumonia/ITEME (infectious thromboembolic menigoencephalitis)

Caused by histopholis somni

53

Fibrinopluritis pleuropneumonia/ITEME (infectious thromboembolic menigoencephalitis) - recognize

few animals affected, high mortality, neuro signs, sudden onset of expiratory dyspnea, fever, depressed, (get septecemic)

54

histopholis somni - affects from this bacteria

vasculo-toxic to endothelial cells
proned to thrombosis
Usually 28 days after arrival
can go to other body systems, cause poly arthritis, pleuritis, peri-carditis, repro problems, neuro problems (ITEME)

55

Fibrinopluritis pleuropneumonia/ITEME (infectious thromboembolic menigo encephalitis) - diagnosis

Resp & neuro signs concurrently
Post-mortem - retinal hemorrhage, necrotizing laryngitis

56

Chronic broncho-pneumonia syndrome (metastotic pneumonia, pulmonary thromboembylisim - what 3 bacteria causes this?

A. pyogenes (Truperella), F. necrophorum, E.coli

57

Chronic broncho-pneumonia syndrome (metastotic pneumonia, pulmonary thromboembylisim - pathogensis

thrombo-embolic pneumonia
Rumenitis -> liver abscesses -> septicemia -> metastatic suppretive pneumonitis
Thrombo-emboli from other organs (septic inflammation, jugular vein thrombosis, metritis, phlebitis etc)

58

Chronic pneumonia

Low morbity/mortality
Causes chronic pulmonary abscesses
Persistant inflammatory reaction
Looks like hypersensitivity pneuminitis (atypical)
Fluctuating body temperatures
Shallow rapid breathing, high bronchial sounds
Productive cough
Chronic weight loss
Sudden drop in milk production during disease flair up

59

Chronic pneumonia - blood

Increased to normal WBC
Fibriogen & globulins are high in the blood

60

Chronic pneumonia - diagnosis

Chronic
1 cow affected
Poor doing (low body condition score)
High TP
Prognosis is poor to guarded

61

Chronic pneumonia - response

variable (embolic is poor if you have blood at the mouth)