Respiratory S1 (done except sinusitis) Flashcards Preview

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What are the basic concepts of the kinetic theory of gases?

Gases are a collection of molecules moving around in a space

Pressure is generated by collision of molecules with the walls

The more frequent and harder the collisions the higher the pressure


What is Boyle's law?

Describe the underlying physical basis

Presure is inversely proportional to volume

If a given amount of gas is compressed to a smaller volume molecules will hit the walls more often therefore raising pressure


What is Charle's law?

Describe the underlying physical basis

Pressure is proportional to absolute temperature (Kelvin scale)

As temperature increases molecules will have more kinetic energy and will therfore impact the walls of a container more often hence rainsing pressure


What is the universal gas law?

What does it allow us to calculate?

= n x R x T

Allows calculation of how volume will change with temperature and pressure changes


What is meant by 'STP'?

Standard temperature and pressure

Temp = 273K

Pressure = 101.0kPa


Describe what is meant by 'Partial pressure' of a gas in a mixture of gases

In a given mixture of gases molecules of each type behave independently

Therefore each gas will contribute a portion of overall pressure

The fraction of pressure is equal to the fraction of gas each molecule type makes up in a given mix


Describe the behaviour of gas mixtures in contact with water

Relate your answers to pressure

Water vapour:

Water moecules enter the gas via evaportation and exert vapour pressure

Gas dissolution:

Gases will enter water and exert 'tension' 


When water molecules enter and leave a gas at the same rate, what has been reached?

What does this equilibrium depend on?

Saturated vapour pressure

Equilibrium is temperature dependent


What is saturated vapour pressure at 37 deg C?



Describe 'Tension'?

Hint: Not what your feeling now you've finally started revising


Tension is the 'pressure' exerted by gas molecules dissolved in water were the water not there


Describe Tension equilibrium

What is it equal to?

When there is no net movement of gas molecules in and out of a body of water

At equilibrium tension is the same as the partial pressure of a gas in gas mixture


How is tension relevant to gas exchange?

Tension in the pulmonary system drives oxygen out into tissues.


What is indicated by gas tension in a liquid?

How readily a gas will leave a liquid

NOT: How much gas is in a liquid


How is solubility relevant to gas tension?

Solubility determines how much gas will enter a liquid to establish a particular tension

Gas content of a liquid = Solubility Tension


How is our calculation of gas content of a liquid modified by chemical reaction of said gas and liquid?

Reaction must complete before tension is established


Reacted gas Dissolved gas Total gas content


Per minute in the lungs what is the required minimum blood flow and O2 absorption rate?

Surface area needed for this is roughly equivalent to?

5L of blood in pulmonary circulation

12mmol of O2

Surface area:

Roughly one tennis court


How many alveoli does the averge human posess?

300 million


What are the divisions of the airway from trachea to bronchiole?

Trachea branches to form Main bronchi

Main bronchi branch to 3 right and 2 right lobar bronchi

Lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi

Then subsegmental

Then bronchioles


What are the layers (and hence the histological differences) between bronchi and bronchioles?


Smooth muscle
Submucosa - contains glands
Crescent shaped cartilage (smaller than in trachea)


Smooth muscle (more than bronchi)


What are terminal bronchioles and what do they divide into?

How many are there?

Terminal bronchioles are analogous to 'twigs on a tree'

Not directly connected to alveoli but branch into a set of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli

~ 200,000 terminal bronchioles


Describe the blood supply of alveoli

Each alveoli surrounded by capillary supplied by branching blood vessels throughout the lungs


What are the 5 key features of the pulmonary circulation?


Low resistance (many parallel branches of short, wide vessels)

Low pressure

Recieves entire cardiac output

Forms practically no tissue fluid

Regional perfusion matched to ventilation


What are the external features of the nose?

Root to Septum:

Root (Radix) at most posterior point on face between eyebrows

Bridge (Dorsum) running between tip and root


Septum forming the medial wall of the nasal cavities 


Wings (Alars) form lateral walls of nasal cavity in the nose



Describe the Internal structure of the nasal cavities

Extends from nostrils to posterior nares

Divides in two medially by nasal septum (cartilage and bone)

Lateral wall has 3 bony projections

Lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium

Superior, middle and inferior Turbinate bones on the lateral walls each shaped like a stretched out seashell

Superior, middle and inferior meatus sit below each turbinate




Label the back boxes

What are represented by arrows labelled 1 to 4?

Boxes, top left clockwise:

Frontal sinus

Ethmoid sinus


Masal cavity



1 - 3 = Bony projections of the lateral wall (Turbinates)

4 = Nasal septum


Label the black boxes

What are represented by Arrows labelled 1 to 3 and 1a to 3a?

Boxes, top left clockwise:

Frontal bone and frontal sinus

Body of sphenoid and sphenoid sinus

Oral cavity

Hard Palate


1 to 3  = Superior, middle and inferior turbinates

1a to 3a = Superior, middle and inferior meatus


What are the functions of the nose?


Filters air

Humidifies and warms air

Organ of smell

Recieves local secretions:


Nasolacrimal duct

(Fun fact: Tears travel through this duct while crying, hence the runny nose, you're essentially crying out your nose)


What are the functions of nasal mucosa?

Pseudostratified columnar ciliated:

Hairs filter large particles

Epithelium moistened by mucus to trap particles

Cilia help transport trapped particles

Watery secretions humidify air



Apart from the epithelium what other features of the nose have a respiratory function and what are the specific functions of each feature?

Vessels beneath epithelium:

Warms air


Slows airflow and helps mix air


What are the names of the paranasla sinuses and how many are there?





8 in total (4 pairs)