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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (25):
1

What are the primary functions of respiration?

Obtain O2
Eliminate the CO2

2

What are the parts of the Stage 1?

Ventilation: exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli and bulk flow
Exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveolar air and blood in lungs capillaries by diffusion
Transport of O2 and CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation by bulk flow
Exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood in tissue capillaries and cells in tissues by diffusion

3

What is stage 2?

Cellular utilization of O2 and production of CO2

4

What are the two subdivisions of the respiratory system?

Conducting zone
Respiratory zone

5

Which zone brings air into and out of the lungs?

Conducting Zone

6

Which zone is lined with alveoli where gas exchange occurs?

Respiratory Zone

7

T:F The trachea and larger bronchioles are rigid muscular tubes enriched by a series of cartilaginous rings that prevent compression of the tubes.

False
The trachea and larger bronchioles are rigid NON-muscular tubes enriched by a series of cartilaginous rings that prevent compression of the tubes.

8

What is unique about the smaller bronchioles in comparison to larger bronchioles?

They have no cartilage to hold them open. Their walls contain smooth muscle.

9

In the conducting zone the sympathetic adrenergic neurons activate?

Beta 2 receptors on bronchial smooth muscle -> relaxation and dilation of the airways, increasing airflow

10

In the conducting zone the parasympathetic cholinergic neurons activate?

Muscarinic receptors-> contraction and constriction of the airways, decreasing airflow

11

In the respiratory zone the respiratory bronchioles consist of?

Alveoli occasionally bud off their walls
Smooth muscle
Have limited ability for gas exchange

12

In the respiratory zone the alveolar ducts consist of?

Contain little smooth muscle
From the arise alveolar sacs and alveoli

13

In the respiratory zone the alveolar sacs consist of?

Alveolar ducts terminate in alveolar sacs
Two or more alveoli that share a common opening

14

In the respiratory zone the alveoli consist of?

Pouch-like evaginations of the wall of the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts and the alveolar sacs

15

How can exchange of O2 and CO2 between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood happen rapidly and efficiently?

Because the walls of the alveolar are thin and have large surface area for diffusion.

16

What do type II alveolar cells do?

Synthesize pulmonary surfactant necessary for reduction of surface tension of alveoli

17

What separates the thoracic cavity form the abdomen?

Diaphragm

18

What is the thoracic cavity comprised of?

Several pairs of ribs
The sternum
Intercostal muscles between the ribs
Thoracic vertebrae

19

What separates each lung form the thoracic wall and other surrounding structures is?

A double-walled closed sac called the Pleural Sac

20

The pressure exerted by a particular gas is directly

Proportional to the percentage of that gas in the total air mixture

21

Pulmonary Ventilation is?

Inhale and exhale air

22

Inspiration

Increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and expand the lungs

23

What are the muscle involved in quiet inspiration?

Diaphragm and the external intercoastals

24

Control of respiration is?

Involuntary and influenced by blood carbon dioxide levels

25

The respiratory rhythmicity center is called?

Medulla