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Flashcards in Lecture three Deck (34):
1

What are the two major regulatory systems in the body

Nervous system and endocrine system

2

Which system responds faster?

Nervous system

3

The chemical substances and electronic impulses that make up the rapid process that stimuli is received by the nervous system is?

Neurotransmitters

4

How long is the response of endocrine system and what does it regulate?

It responds with in minutes, hours, or days. It regulated ion levels in the body, metabolic processes and long-term processes such as growth and reproductive ability.

5

What are the two major type if cells in the nervous system?

Neurons and supporting cells

6

What are the two important properties that neurons have?

Excitability and conductivity

7

The ability to respond to a stimulus is ________?
Conductivity is?

Excitability
The ability to transmit a signal

8

Neuroglia are?

Specialized cells that SUPPORT the neurons in some way

9

What are the two gross anatomical basis of the nervous system?

Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system

10

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord which are surrounded and protected by the skull and vertebral column respectively

11

Everything outside the central nervous system is the?

Peripheral nervous system

12

What are the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system

Somatic nervous system
Automatic nervous system

13

What is the Somatic nervous system composed of?

The Somatic afferent (sensory) division
The Somatic efferent (motor) division

14

Somatic afferent (sensory) division does what?

Receives sensory information and conveys it to the spinal cord and brain via nerves

15

Somatic efferent (motor) division does what?

Regulates the contraction of skeleton muscles via neuronal pathway that descend from the brain and spinal cord to lower motor neurons
Target is ALWAYS skeletal muscle

16

What does the Peripheral nervous system do?

Delivers sensory information to the CNS and carries motor commands to the peripheral tissue ans systems

17

What does the Autonomic nervous system do?

Sensory neurons that convey information form receptors in the viscera to the CNS and motor neurons form the CNS that conduct impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.

18

What is unique about autonomic nervous system?

Since its motor responses are not normally under concussions control, the ANS is involuntary.

19

What are the two branches of Autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

20

What is the difference in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Process promoted by sympathetic neurons often involve expenditure of energy while those promoted by the parasympathetic neurons restore and conserve body energy.

21

Fight or flight is

Sympathetic

22

What are the three principle parts of the neuron

1) The cell body
2) Dendrites
3) An axon

23

What are two unique structures in the cell body of a neuron?

Neurotubules and Neurofilaments

24

Neurotubles do what?

Function in the intracellular transport of proteins and other substances, in both directions between the cell body and the ends of the processes

25

What structure provides a skeletal framework for the axon

Neurofilaments

26

What do dendrites do?

Conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body

27

Axons do what?

Carries nerve impulses away form the cell body to the next neuron, muscle cell or gland

28

Where does a axon originate from?

Axon Hillock

29

What is the initial segment?

the site where the nerve impulse is initiated lies immediately after the axon hillock

30

The junction between the end bulb of one axon and the cell body, dendrite, or axon of another neuron is called?
Also the site where information is transferred form one cell to another.

Synapse

31

What does it mean myelination of axons?

Some axons are covered with layers of a lipid sheath called myelin.

32

What cells form myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system

Schwann cells

33

The cells that form the myelin sheath in the central nervous system are called

Oligodendrocytes

34

What is the outer layer of the myelin sheath called?

Neurilemma sheath