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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (75)
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1

What are the functions of the respiratory system

Air conduction/gas exchange, Phonation, Olfaction, Heat regulation, temp and moisture, protection, acid-based regulation, hormone conversion.

2

Functionally the structures within the respiratory system can be subdivided into:

1. Conductive system 2. Transitional system 3. Gas exchange

3

What is the conductive system composed of

Composed of nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi

4

What is the transitional system composed of

Terminal Bronchioles

5

What is the gas exchange system composed of

Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

6

In the transitional system the terminal bronchioles are lined by what?

- "Club cells" (Clara cells) - non-ciliated secretory cells - only a few ciliated cells - healthy bronchioles DO NOT have goblet cells.

7

What are the alveoli lined by?

Epithelial type I (membranous) and type II pneumonocytes (aka pneumocytes)

8

What is non-specific (non immune mediated) defense mechanisms of the respiratory system

-Mucous trapping -Mucociliary clearance -Phagocytosis -Air turbulence (coughing and sneezing)

9

What is specific (immune-mediated) examples of the respiratory system

-Antibody production -Antibody-mediated phagocytosis -Cell-mediated immunity

10

What is the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi most lined by

Pseudostratified ciliated, columnar epithelium with secretory goblet cells and submucosal serous cells.

11

Which category is the pseudostratified columnar epithelium classified

Simple epithelia

12

The respiratory portion of the nasal cavity is lined by ciliated

pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.

13

The lamina propria of the nasal cavity contains what

tubulo-alveolar glands mainly serous, with lesser numbers of mucous and mixed glands.

14

In the nasal cavity what does the submucosa support

Submucosa supports the lamina propria

15

What type of cells does the olfactory epithelium contain

Olfactory cells.

16

Bone supported cavity within the skill divided by nasal cartilaginous septum into two halves: left and right, Each half has 3 regions- what are they

1. Vestibular region 2. Respiratory region 3. Olfactory region

17

The vestibular region is lined by what

Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium.

18

What does the external part of the nasal cavity have

cutaneous mucous membrane, haired skin and glands

19

What is the respiratory region in the nasal cavity lined with

Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells.

20

What is the mucociliary apparatus responsible for?

Clearance

21

What is the following image lined with and what is this combination of cells known as?

Pseudostratifed Columnar Ciliated Epithelium and this combo is called the Mucociliary apparatus. 

22

What are the red arrows pointing to 

Goblet cells- this is showing cilia and goblet cells SEM

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells in the respiratory region of the nasal cavity. 

23

What region is this image showing in the nasal cavity? What is this region lined by?

Vestibular region of the nasal cavity and it is lined with stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. 

24

What region of the nasal cavity is this image showing? What is this region lined with?

Respiratory region

Lined with pesudostratifed columnar ciliated epithelium. 

25

What do goblet cells produce?

Mucinogen granules 

26

what does the movement of cilia remove?

muscus w/ trapped airborne inhaled particles such as dust and microorganisms 

27

What does the goblet cells and the cilia constitute in the  the upper respiratory passages?

A cleaning apparatus 

28

How do goblet cells vary based off their reaction to injury?

They will be increased in numbers (Hyperplasia) in smokers

Metaplasia which is a change from ciliated stratified epitheulium to squamous stratified epithelium 

29

What is immotile cilia syndrome ?

Dysfunction- dynein claw is missing

30

What is the olfactory region lined with ?

Olfactory epitheulium- much thicker than respiratory epithelium and lacks goblet cells. 

31

what regoin of the nasal cavity is the image showing?

Olfactory region of the nasal cavity. 

32

Which is respiratory epithelium which is olfactory epithelium?

Left = respiratory 

Right = Olfactory epithelium (thicker and no goblet cells) 

33

Where is the olfactory epithelium located?

The dorasl part of the nasal cavity 

34

What cells are in the olfactory epithelium?

Oflactory neurons- smell

Supporting (sustentacular cells)

Basal cells- stem cells for others 

35

In the olfactory epitheulium the lamina propria contains what? 

Serous olfactory glands and non-myelinated axons of olfactory neurons from nerve bundles Cr. N. 1

36

Both the olfactory and respiratory regions are rich in what?

Venous plexus aka Swell bodies - distended with blood.

37

What are the arrows pointed too and what regions are they found in? What is in them?

Swell bodies = venous plexuses

Both olfactory and respiratory regions

distended with blood.

38

Label A,  B and G

A= axons of olfactory neurons

B = basal cells

G = serous olfactory gland

39

List some nasal cavity cells and structures 

-Ciliated columnar epithelial cells

-Goblet cells- secrete mucus

-Basal cells -stem cells for other types

Neuroendocrine cells

Brush cells - microvilli

Olfactory epithelium

40

What organ is the following image showing?

What is it mainly used for?

Vomero-nasal organ

Mainly used to detect pheromones

41

What does the larynx include and what is it lined with?

Includes cartilage, vocal folds and skeletal muscle

Initial part of the larynx is lined by stratified squamous epithelium

After the vocal chords the lining changes to pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

42

What is the trachea lined by?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

43

What is this?

Trachea 

44

What animal has complete rings of the cartilage in the trachea

Birds

45

What is the purpose of rings of cartilage in the trachea?

Support the tracheal wall.

46

What completes the wall of the trachea

A CT adventitia

47

What is 1 and 2

1= hyaline cartilage

2= Esophagus

48

What is the right arrow pointing to?

the left?

Right = pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Left = Hyaline cartilage of trachea

49

What are the two top arrows pointing to? 

The bottom one?

Top Left = cilia

Top Right= goblet cell

Bottom = basal cells 

50

What does the trachea bifurcate into ?

The trachea bifurcates into the bronchi- which enter the lung and branch extensively. 

51

Bronchi are lined by what?

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

52

What is the green arrow pointing to? 

What is the circled area?

Arrow = plates of hyaline cartilage

Circle = CT containing mixed bronchial glands

53

What does mixed seroumucous glands secrete? (bronchus slides)

Mucin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme (bacteriostatic/cidal) 

54

What is the arrow pointing to?

What is this a image of?

Arrow = cartilage

whole slide = Lung

55

Identify the location in the respiratory tract 

Nasal Cavity 

56

What do bronchioles lack?

Cartilage and glands

57

What are bronchioles subdivided into

Terminal branches and respiratory bronchioles 

58

The following image is a terminal bronchiole

1. what is lined by

2. what is still present in terminal bronchioles

1. Lined by ciliated cuboidal cells with few to no goblet cells

2. A muscularis mucosae is still present in terminal bronchioles 

59

1. What is the following image of?

2. Where are these cells located?

3. What is the main function of these cells

1. Club (Clara) cells 

2. Located in terminal and respiratory bronchioles

3.  soure of surfactant-like substance which aids in maintaining patency of airways.

60

What are the arrows pointing to?

Club (Clara) cells 

61

What are the arrows pointing to?

Ciliated cells in the bronchiolar lumen 

62

What is the arrow pointing to

Club (clara) cells 

63

What is the function of the respiratory bronchiole 

Conduction and gas exchange 

64

1. Respiratory bronchioles are lined by what?

2. What is incomplete?

3. Respiratory bronchioles subdivide into what ducts?

1. Lined by ciliated cuboidal epithelium (arrow)

2. Have incompelete muscularis mucosae

3. subdivide into alveolar ducts 

65

What do alveolar ducts empty into?

empty into alveolar sacs and alveoli.

66

The walls of alveolar ducts are composed entirely of alveoli lined with what

lined with simple squamous epithelial cells. 

67

The presence of what muscle gives the lip of the alveolus a knob-like appearance on sections

the presense of smooth muscle. 

68

Alveolar ducts branch into alveolar sacs which lack what?

Smooth muscle. 

69

Pneuomcyte type I is also known as what?

 

Squamous alveolar type 1 cell.

70

Pneumocyte Type II is also known as 

Granular alveolar type II cells. 

71

What is the arrow pointing to?

Pneumocyte type II, granular pneumocyte, aka great alveolar cells. Lamellar granules contain recently synthesized SURFACTANT 

72

What is the blood- air barrier composed of?

1. the vascular endothelium

2. Basement membrane of the endothelial cell

3. Basement membrane of the type I pneumocyte 

4. Cytoplasm of type I pneumocyte 

73

What is the air-blood barrier pathway? 

Oxygen in alveolar air -> Surfactant cytoplasm of type I alveolar cell -> Basal lamina of type I cell & basal lamina of endothelial cell -> Cytoplasm of endothelial cell -> Capillary RBCs

74

The lungs are covered by what (arrow) 

Covered by the visceral pleural composed of connective tissue and lined by simple squamous epithelium. 

75

The thoracic wall, diaphragm and mediastinum are lined by what?

The parietal pleura which is continuous with the mediastinal visceral pleura covering the entire surfaces of the lungs.