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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (46):
1

Earth’s atmosphere

78% = nitrogen
21% = oxygen
1% = other gases (CO2)

2

Breathing

movement of air from environment into body

3

Respiration

- exchange of O2 for CO2 between cells and environment
- O2 is exchanged across respiratory membrane (via diffusion

4

External Respiration

exchange of gases between lungs and circulatory system

5

Internal Respiration

exchange of gases between circulatory system and tissues

6

Breathing > ________>________>________

Breathing > external respiration > internal respiration > cellular respiration

7

Air enters body through:

- mouth
- nasal cavities

8

Nasal Cavities

- contains cilia and mucus
- warms, moistens and filters air

9

Pharynx (aka throat)

- passages from nose to mouth come together
- branches at back of throat into trachea and esophagus

10

Trachea (aka windpipe)

- contains mucus-producing cells
- traps particles not trapped by nasal passage
- surrounded and supported by bands of cartilage to keep it open and prevent it from collapsing

11

Larynx (aka voice box)

- enlarged cartilage (supports epiglottis by covering glottis (opening to trachea) during swallowing)
- contains vocal cords

12

Vocal cords in Larynx

- made of two thin sheets of elastic ligaments
- different sounds produced by tension of ligaments as air passes by
- at puberty, cartilage of pharynx and vocal cords increases in size and thickness
- inflammation of vocal cords= lower frequency vibrations

13

Bronchi

- branches from trachea > lungs > bronchioles
- surrounded by cartilage

14

Bronchioles

- lack cartilage
- Smooth muscle
- from bronchioles, air > tiny sacs (alveoli)

15

Alveoli

- tiny sacs
- each lung has 150 million alveoli
- surrounded by capillaries for gas exchange (site for gas exchange)

16

Diffusion of gasses in alveoli

- O2 moves from within alveoli to capillaries
- CO2 moves from capillaries to inside of alveoli

17

During exhalation in Alveoli

- tiny alveoli collapse
- membranes touch
- don’t stick bcs of film of fat and protein (lipoprotein)
- during inhalation they reopen

18

Respiratory distress syndrome

not enough lipoprotein so people have trouble opening their alveoli upon inhalation

19

Pleural membrane

- surrounds outer surface of lungs and inner wall of chest cavity
- space between pleural membrane is fluid filled
- prevents friction during inhalation

20

Gas moves from ___ to ___ pressure

high to low pressure

21

Inhalation

pressure in lungs is lower than pressure in atmosphere

22

Exhalation

Pressure in lungs is higher than pressure of atmosphere

23

Diaphragm

- dome shaped muscle
- separates organs of thorax (chest) from abdominal cavity
- regulates pressure in lungs

24

During inhalation (diaphragm, intercostals, volume, pressure, air)

- diaphragm contracts pulling downwards
- intercostals contract, ribs up and out
- volume is increased
- pressure in lungs decreased
- air goes in

25

During exhalation (diaphragm, intercostals, volume, pressure, air)

- diaphragm relaxes pulling upwards
- intercostals relax and ribs move down and in
- volume decreases
- pressure in lungs increase
- air goes out

26

Pneumothorax

- collapsed lung
- hole in chest cavity
- pressure difference between inside and out is less
- air flow in lungs is affected

27

Rib Muscles (intercostal muscles)

- double layer of muscles between ribs
- external layer
- inner layer
- pleural membrane- surrounds lungs

28

External layer (intercostal muscle)

lifts ribs up and out (inhale)

29

Inner layer (intercostal muscle)

Ribs move down and in (exhale)

30

Medulla Oblongata (CO2)

- controls breathing movements
- CO2 dissolves in blood and combines w/ H2O to form H2CO3
- contains chemoreceptors
- activated chemoreceptors > medulla oblongata sends msg to intercostal muscles and diaphragm> increases breathing movements
- CO2 lvls fall = inactive chemoreceptors

31

Aortic Arteries (O2)

- low lvls of O2 stimulate chemoreceptors in carotid and aortic arteries > msgs to medulla oblongata > activates intercostal muscles and diaphragm > increased breathing movements

32

____ receptors more sensitive to changes in blood chem than ___ receptors (CO2 or O2)

CO2, O2
- O2 receptors are backup

33

3 factors increase ventilation

- Decreased O2
- Increased CO2
- Increased H+

34

Brain response to exercise

receives info from blood about CO2 and H+ lvls. Nerve msg sent to diaphragm

35

Lung response to exercise

increased ventilation restores O2 and loses CO2

36

Kidney response to exercise

removes excess H+ from blood into urine> poops excess H+

37

Muscles response to exercise

increased muscle movement prevents CO2 build up and excess H+. Increased O2 demand of muscles lowers blood O2 because muscles take in O2

38

Adrenal Glands response to exercise

adrenaline is released in response to exercise. hormone causes breathing rate to increase

39

Tidal Volume

Normal body volume at rest (500mL)

40

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Additional volume inhaled after tidal inhalation

41

Expiratory Reserve Volume

Additional volume exhaled after tidal exhalation

42

Vital Capacity

Total lung volume/capacity, TV+IR+ER

43

Residual Volume

Remaining air after full exhalation, prevents lungs from
collapsing

44

What happens to CO2 in blood

1. binds w/ water to create H2CO3
2. H2CO3 -> H + HCO3
3. Hydrogen ion binds with hemoglobin
4. HCO3 diffuses into plasma then carried to lungs
5. reaction reversed in lungs to form CO2 (exhale)
6. H+HCO3 -> H2CO3
7. H2CO3 -> CO2 + H2O (exhale)

45

How is O2 transported into blood?

- 99% carried by hemoglobin
- 1% by plasma

46

How is CO2 transported into blood?

- 23% carried by hemoglobin
- 7% by plasma
- 70% dissolved in blood as bicarbonate (HCO3)